Submitted to: Sir Superman Submitted by: James Bond Degree ‘34’ Syndicate ‘CIA’ Date: 21-03-2013 CONTENTS Chapter 1 * Background * Quaid’s early life * Education Chapter 2 * Politics * Membership of Congress * Hindu-Muslim Unity * Devotion to Muslim League * Leadership of Muslims Chapter 3 * Thought of Separate Homeland * Pakistan Resolution * Gandhi-Quaid meetings * Views about Quaid Chapter 4 * Defending Policy of Quaid Chapter 5 * Formation of Federal Cabinet * Constitutional Problems * Establishment of Capital * Provincial Government Establishment of Administrative Headquarters * Foreign Affairs * Education Policy CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1) Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) 2) Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) 3) Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). 4) Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947 5) Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. ) Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. 7) Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986) 8) Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. 9) www. national heritage . government. pk 10) “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of Pakistan Website. 11) “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. 12) “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”. 13) BBC’s Poll for South Asia’s greatest ever leader. 14) “The Father of Pakistan”.
The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. 15) “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan. 16) “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. 11 August 1947. 17) “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. com. 18) “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Harappa. com. 19) “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”. Urdu Point. 20) “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Chow. 21) “I Remember Jinnah”. Daily Dawn (newspaper). 22) “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan ACKNOWLEDGE This research paper is dedicated to all those martyres who worked the reation of a separate home land for Muslims. They helped Quaid-e-As am in this great mission and gave sacrifices for our independence . They face many problems and hardships for the independence of Muslims in the subcontinent. I would like to thank James Bond for assigning this topic to me. It was truly an enlightening experience for me to do research on this topic. I would also like to thank my respected teacher Iron Man for guiding me and providing me with more than enough knowledge on this topic.
The research was mainly done using the help of computers and internet therefore the bibliography section may look a little empty at first. But once one gets to visit these internet sites he is marveled by the amount of data provided on the respective topic. So hats off to all those people who are spending their precious time to run these enlightening websites. Without these the worth of internet would be much less in the context of knowledge. The main objective of this research paper is to highlights the efforts of the Quaid-e-As am Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the creation of Pakistan.
His role in the formation of Pakistan and in the initial administration of Pakistan after independence because he handled all the problems of Pakistan when there were only few people who knew about administrative problems. ————————————————- INTRODUCTION Quaid-e-As am as an architect of Pakistan Some revisionist people criticize Pakistan and few even go so far as to question the integrity of Quaid-e-As am in demanding a separate homeland for the Muslims of Hindustan.
This modern disease has even spread to those who live in the West but have Pakistani roots. It is however interesting that all these critical people studied in Pakistani schools, travelled on Pakistani passports and have families in that country. Painting a realistic image of Pakistan in our young people’s minds is the only way they can hope to have a sense of belonging to the country and the elderly generation has a duty to provide a great deal in helping such parents and families living abroad whose roots are still fastened firmly with this land. Coming back to he topic, it is very difficult to add something new or something that is not known about him. Yet the paradox is that the younger generation has to be reminded of his contribution to the history of Muslims of the Subcontinent What I want to share with you about Quaid, is not only the information from history books, magazines and films, but also what was told to me by my father and those who saw the Quaid, worked for the cause of Pakistan and saw the creation of Pakistan. Pakistan’s story is so much linked with the life of the Quaid –e-As am that one cannot be told without the other.
So who was this great man, who with the help of his type writer and an adoring sister created the largest country for Muslims in the world in a span of few years. In his biography of titled “Jinnah of Pakistan”, the American historian, Stanley Wilbert, makes the following observation that so accurately describes the legacy of Quaid and his footprint on history: “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. During his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. ————————————————- ————————————————- CHAP # 1 Quaid’s Early life Background According to Sarojini Naidu, a famous Congress politician, close friend and follower of Gandhi but also author of Quaid’s first biography, Quaid’s ancestors were Hindu Rajput who converted to Islam.
Jinnah’s family belonged to the Ismailia Kahoka branch of Shi’a Islam. Early Education He studied at several schools at the Sind Madras a-tool-Islam in Karachi; briefly at the Goal Das Ten Primary School in Bombay; and finally at the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where, at age sixteen, he passed the matriculation examination other University of Bombay. Higher Education in England In 1892, at the age of only 16, he sailed to England to study and in 3 years, at age 19, he became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England.
During his student years in England, Jinnah came under the influence of 19th-century British liberalism, and his education included exposure to the idea of the democratic nation and progressive politics. But later as an Indian intellectual and political authority, Jinnah would find his commitment to the Western ideal of the nation-state and the reality of Indian society of many religions, cultures and ethnic groups difficult to reconcile during his later political career. In 1896 he returned to India and settled in Bombay. He built a House in Malabar Hill, later known as Jinnah House. He
Became a successful lawyer, gaining particular fame For his skilled handling. His reputation as a skilled lawyer Prompted Indian leader Bal Gangadhar Tikal to hire him as defense counsel for his sedition trial in 1905. Quaid argued that it was not sedition for an Indian to demand freedom and self-government in his own country. ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ———————————————— ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- CHAP # 2 Introduction to Politics Membership of Congress Soon after his return to India, he joined the Indian National Congress, which was the largest political organization in India.
Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did not favor outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and industry as beneficial to India. Quaid had initially avoided joining the All India Muslim League, founded in 1906 because he regarded it as too religiously oriented. However he decided to provide leadership to the Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim Unity ; Joining Muslim League His efforts to work for all Indians was so much respected that he was called; Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity. Eventually, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 and became the President at the 1916 session in Luck now.
Jinnah was the architect of the 1916 Luck now Pact between the Congress and the League, bringing them together on most issues regarding self-government and presenting a united front to the British. Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. One Western journalist asked Quaid, why he never went to jail while all Congress leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Baldev Singh have been in many times in prison.
Quaid replies: “I am a parliamentarian. Prison is for criminals”. In 1924 Quaid, officially reorganized the Muslim League and Devoted the next seven years attempting to bring about Unity among various ranks of Muslims and to develop Rational formula to effect a Hindu Muslim settlement, Which he considered the pre-condition for Indian freedom. This task was very difficult and was frustrated in the start. Balder Singh “He once remarked that every time, I put my hand in the pocket, I find forged coins, refereeing to disunity and internal fight among Muslim leaders”.
Even if he was working tirelessly to unite Muslims in Hindustan, he attended several unity conferences between Congress and Muslim league. He wrote the “Delhi Muslim Proposals in 1927”, pleaded for the incorporation of the basic Muslim demands in the Nehru report, and formulated the “Fourteen Points” Furthermore, in 1927, Quaid entered negotiations with Muslim and Hindu leaders on the issue of a future constitution, during the struggle against the all-British Simon Commission. The Muslim League wanted separate electorates while the Nehru Report favored joint electorates.
Quaid personally opposed separate electorates, but accepted the decision of his party. He then drafted compromises and put forth demands that he thought would satisfy both. These became known as the 14 points of Mr. Jinnah. However, they were rejected by the Congress and other political parties. The British government called 2 Round Table Conferences in London to let Hindustani leaders to work out their differences, but talks failed. Quaid was so disillusioned by the breakdown of talks, that in 1931 he relocated to London in order to practice in the Privy Council Bar. Devotion to Muslim League
That was a dark time for Muslims in India. But luckily, prominent Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal, the Aga Khan and Chaudhary Rah mat Ali made efforts to convince Quaid to return from London to India and take charge of a now-reunited Muslim League. In 1934 Quaid returned and began to re-organize the party, being closely assisted by Liquate Ali Khan, who would act as his right-hand man. In the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly, the League emerged as a competent party, capturing a significant number of seats under the Muslim electorate, but lost in the Muslim-majority Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province.
After the election success, Quaid offered an alliance with the Congress – both bodies would face the British together, but the Congress had to share power, accept separate electorates and the League as the representative of India’s Muslims. That was a proof of Quaid was willing to go a long way to have an independent united Hindustan where Hindus and Muslims would be equal partners. The latter two terms were unacceptable to the Congress, which had its own national Muslim leaders and membership and adhered to One India.
Even as Quaid held talks with Congress president Rajendra Prasad, Congress leaders suspected that Quaid would use his position as a lever for exaggerated demands and obstruct government, and demanded that the League merge with the Congress. The talks failed, and while Quaid declared the resignation of all legislators from provincial and central offices in 1938 as a “Day of Deliverance” from Hindu domination, some historians assert that he remained hopeful for an agreement. But it was becoming clearer to Quaid and his associates that may be Congress was interested in such solution.
Gandhi often said to Quaid; “Let the British leave. Afterward, we can figure out a solution. ” In one of his famous letters, Quaid asked Gandhi to be more precise as to how the power would be distributed. Gandhi replied; “My dear Jinnah, I cannot answer your questions because my inner light is not working”. Quaid wrote back; ”To hell with your inner light. Why do not you admit that you have no answer to what I am asking”? ————————————————- CHAP # 3 The Idea of Pakistan By the way, a wish for a separate homeland for Muslims of Hindustan was in the air for some time.
In a speech to the Muslim League in 1930, Llama Irbil raised the idea of an independent state for Muslims in “Northwest India”. Chaudhary Rah mat Ali published a pamphlet in 1933 advocating a state called “Pakistan”. Thought of Separate Homeland Following the failure to work with the Congress, Quaid, who had embraced separate electorates and the exclusive right of the Muslim League to represent Muslims, was converted to the idea that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their rights. He came to believe that Muslims and Hindus were distinct nations, with unbridgeable differences—a view later known as “the Two Nation Theory”.
Quaid declared that a united India would lead to the marginalization of Muslims, and eventually civil war between Hindus and Muslims. This change of view may have occurred through his correspondence with Allama Iqbal, who was close to him. Pakistan resolution In the session in Lahore in 1940, the Pakistan resolution was adopted as the main goal of the Muslim League. The resolution was rejected outright by the Congress, and criticized by many Muslim leaders like Maulana Abu Kalama Azad, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, Side Abdul Al Muddy and the Jamaal-e-Islamic.
On 26 July 1943, Quaid was stabbed and wounded by a member of the extremist Chasers in an attempted assassination. During the mission of British minister Stafford Cripps, Jinnah demanded parity between the number of Congress and League ministers, the League’s exclusive right to appoint Muslims and a right for Muslim-majority provinces to secede, leading to the breakdown of talks. When it became clear to both British and Congress party that Quaid and Muslim League would not budge from its demand, they made a common front against him. Gandhi-Quaid meetings
In 1944 Gandhi held talks fourteen times with Quaid in Bombay, about a united front— while talks failed, Gandhi’s overtures to Jinnah increased as a last ditch effort to avoid the partition of Hindustan. But League was becoming very representative of all Muslims. The League’s influence increased in the Punjab after the death of Unionist leader Sikandar Hayat Khan in 1942. In the 1946 elections for the Constituent Assembly of India, the Congress won most of the elected seats, while the League won a large majority of Muslim electorate seats. Interim Government portfolios were announced on 25 October 1946.
Muslim Leaguers were sworn in on 26 October 1946. The League entered the interim government, but Quaid refrained from accepting office for himself. This was credited as a major victory for Quaid, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and was allowed to appoint an equal number of ministers despite being the minority party. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the Congress that independence of Pakistan was the only way of avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. Different views about Quaid
Some revisionist historians like H M Serve and Ayesha Jalap assert that Quaid never wanted partition of India. It was actually the outcome of the Congress leaders being unwilling to share power with the Muslim League. It is asserted that Quaid only used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to obtain significant political rights for Muslims. Whatever the case may be, looking at the poor situation of Indian Muslims today and their second class status, Pakistanis should be grateful that Quaid gave up the idea of a united India after the British departure and insisted that Muslims in Hindustan should have their own homeland.
Quaid has gained the admiration of major Indian nationalist politicians like Leal Krishna Advani whose comments praising Jinnah caused uproar in his own Bharatiya Janta Party Jessant Singh likewise praised Jinnah for standing up to the Indian National Congress and the British. Everyone from Mount baton, Gandhi, and Nehru down to ordinary persons, friend and foe all agreed that during his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit.
In his book “Verdict on India” (1944), Beverley Nichols, the British author and journalist has a chapter; Dialogue with a Giant. This is about his meeting with Quaid. He wrote; “Mr. Jinnah is in a position of unique strategic importance. He can sway the battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to the right, to the front, to the rear at his bidding and at nobody else’s. If Gandhi goes, there is Nehru or Raj opal or Paten or a dozen others. But if Jinnah goes, who is there? ” CHAP # 4 Jinnah’s Vision for Pakistan Defending Policy of Quaid
In 1937, Quaid defended his ideology of equality in his speech to the All-India Muslim League in Luck now where he stated, “Settlement can only be achieved between equals. ” He also had a rebuttal to Nehru’s statement which argued that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and INC. ” Jinnah stated that the Muslim League was the third and “equal partner” within Indian politics. Quaid gave a precise definition of the term ‘Pakistan’ in 1941 at Lahore in which he stated: “Some confusion prevails in the minds of some individuals in regard to the use of the word ‘Pakistan’.
This word has become synonymous with the Lahore resolution owing to the fact that it is a convenient and compendious method of describing it. Whilst giving an interview to American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by one of the journalists whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Quaid replied: “We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life.
By all cannons of international law we are a nation. ” A controversy has raged in Pakistan about whether Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a secular state or an Islamic state. His views as expressed in his policy speech on 11 August 1947 said: “I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State”.
Jinnah, 11August 1947 – presiding over the constituent assembly. Quaid wanted a secular state, but with Islamic principles. The reason is that a true Islamic state is not a theocratic state “Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims – Hindus, Christians, and Parses – but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan”.
Broadcast talk to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan recorded February 1948 Inaugurating the assembly on 11 August 1947, Quaid spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by him.
On 11 October 1947, in an address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said: “We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play”. On 21 February 1948, in an address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy and 6thLight Regiments in Mali, Karachi, he said: “You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.
With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve”. CHAP # 5 Quaid-e-As am as a Governor General On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-As am Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under: Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the Quaid-e-As am took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liquate Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister.
Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947. Members of the Cabinet 1. Vardar Abdul Rib Nester (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education) 4. I. I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Glulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandala (Law) 7. Sir Afar Ulla Khan Adjani (Affair) Constitutional Problems The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-As am.
Establishment of Capital Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan. Provincial Government Quaid-e-As an elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces: Khan Iftikhar Husain Midmost – Punjab Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal Khan Abdul Qayyum – N. W. F. P Mohammad AyeChurro – Sind Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhary Mohammad Aye was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established.
Moreover, Head-quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up. Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-As am paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy. Membership of UNO After independence, Quaid-e-As am paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-As am.
Implementation of Education Policy Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at the time of independence. For this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. He made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-As am did a lot to improve education policy of the country. In the Service of Pakistan
Quaid-e-As am served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption. First Cabinet of Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-As am. He took of it. Liquate Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan. CONCLUSION In the conclusion I would like to say that Quaid was great leader and a true Muslim and he was a real architect of Pakistan. He was great leader and he proved it by the creation of Pakistan and he is guiding star for the generation to come and he is role model for generation to come.
Limitations First of all I am thankful to Allah Almighty who enabled me to make this assignment. It is wisely said that one feels no pains after he has been successful in doing a work. But I would like to mention some as they are asked. I live in hired hostel where internet is not available. Therefore, I faced many difficulties in gathering data. Moreover, I do not have my own computer so I had to work on my roommate’s computer or on the lab computer. I had much burden of studies of other subjects. So, I could not give as much concentration to this assignment.
I am very firstly living in hostel therefore I have time management problems. I also do not possess very vast general knowledge. Bibliography * Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) * Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) * Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. * BBC’s Poll for South Asia’s greatest ever leader. * “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan. * “I Remember Jinnah”. Daily Dawn (newspaper). “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. 11 August 1947. * “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. com. * “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”. * “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan. * “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Harappa. com. * Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). * “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”. Urdu Point. * Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947. * “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of Pakistan Website. * “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986). * Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. * “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Chow. * “The Father of Pakistan”. The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. * Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. * www. national heritage . government. pk ————————————————- ————————————————- THE END… ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————-