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Chapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior MULTIPLE CHOICE Ability 1. Which of the following statements is true about the term “ability”, as it is used in the field of organizational behavior? a. It refers to an individual’s willingness to perform various tasks. b. It is a current assessment of what an individual can do. c. It refers exclusively to intellectual skills. d. It refers exclusively to physical skills. e. It is a prediction of future aptitude based on current attitudes. (b; Moderate; Ability; p. 45) 2. Which one of the following words is the best synonym for “ability”, as the term is used in organizational behavior? . motivation b. capacity c. experience d. intellect e. wisdom (b; Challenging; Ability; p. 45) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 3. Which of the following is not a dimension of intellectual ability? a. number aptitude b. perceptual speed c. spatial visualization d. dynamic flexibility e. social aptitude (d; Moderate; Intellectual Ability; p. 45) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 4. What is a factor of intelligence that suggests that it makes sense to talk about overall intelligence? a. general mental ability b. intelligent quotient c. ability d. cultural intelligence e. perceptual speed (a; Moderate; General Mental Ability; p. 6) 5. Which of the following is not one of the nine basic abilities involved in the performance of physical tasks? a. stamina b. dynamic flexibility c. speed d. body coordination e. trunk strength (c; Moderate; Nine Basic Physical Abilities; p. 47) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Biographical Characteristics 6. Which of the following is not a biographical characteristic? a. political affiliation b. age c. sex d. tenure e. race (a; Easy; Biographical Characteristics; p. 48) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 7. What will be the largest demographic change in the U. S. workforce in the next decade? a. ncreasing ethnic diversity b. a fall in married workers c. increasing age of workers d. decreasing tenure of workers e. more women in the workforce than men (c; Moderate; Age; p. 48) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 8. Research shows that which of the following is likely to decrease as a worker grows older? a. productivity b. likelihood of quitting c. absenteeism d. vacation days taken e. work ethic (b; Moderate; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 9. Which of the following statements is true? a. Older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than younger workers. b.

Older employees have lower rates of unavoidable absence than younger workers. c. Older employees are more likely to quit their job than younger workers. d. Older employees are perceived to be more flexible than younger workers. e. Older employees generally have lower productivity than younger workers. (a; Moderate, Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 10. Which of the following is true concerning the relationship between age and job satisfaction? a. Most studies have found a negative association between age and satisfaction. b. Some studies have found a U-shaped relationship between age and satisfaction. . Satisfaction decreases among professionals as they age. d. Satisfaction increases among nonprofessionals during middle age. e. Satisfaction decreases among nonprofessionals after middle age. (b; Moderate; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 11. Research does not support which of the following statements about gender in the workplace? a. Women are more willing to conform to authority than men. b. Men are more aggressive than women. c. Women are more productive at work than men. d. Men have higher expectations of success. e. Women have lower turnover rates than men. c; Moderate; Gender; p. 50) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 12. Research supports which of the following statements about men and women in the workplace? a. Men are more productive. b. Women are more productive. c. Men are the most receptive to socialization. d. Women are more likely to resign. e. Women have more absences. (e; Moderate; Gender; p. 50) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 13. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate of women in the workplace? a. Women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men. . Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family. c. Women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men. d. Women generally have jobs for which a temporary replacement can be hired. e. Women tend to work in jobs that have less flexible schedules than men do. (b; Moderate; Gender; p. 50) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 14. Which of the following is a major problem in the use of ability tests for selection and promotion of personnel? a. The tests are not reliable. b. The tests fail to take into account the personality of the individual. c.

Some individuals with high intelligence are poor test takers. d. Women enjoy an unfair advantage on these tests. e. The tests may have an adverse impact on different racial and ethnic groups. (e; Moderate; Race; p. 51) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 15. Which of the following statements concerning tenure is not true? a. Recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. b. Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity. c. Tenure is a potent variable in explaining turnover. d. Tenure and satisfaction are positively related. . Tenure and organizational investment are negatively related. (b; Moderate; Tenure; p. 52) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 16. Studies indicate that which of the following tends to decrease with increased tenure? a. job satisfaction b. productivity c. absenteeism d. raises and promotion e. efficiency (c; Moderate; Tenure; p. 52) 17. Perhaps the greatest religious issue revolves around what? a. Christianity b. Judaism c. Catholicism d. Buddhism e. Islam (e; Moderate; Religion; p. 53) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 18. What Fortune 500 company offers domestic partner benefits for gay couples? . Wal-Mart b. Alltel c. Rubbermaid d. Nestle e. Heintz (a; Moderate; Sexual Orientation; p. 53) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} Learning 19. Which of the following indicates that learning has taken place? a. the ability to perform well on exams b. a change in motivation c. a change in behavior d. a high I. Q. score e. an increase in experience (c; Easy; Learning; p. 54) 20. Learning has not taken place in which of the following cases? a. A farm worker makes sure that she always wears a hat after she was badly sunburned. b. A salesman watches a training video and then uses some f the techniques in that video. c. An athlete trains rigorously, until he can run a mile in less than 4 minutes. d. A warehouseman avoids working by staying in areas of the warehouse where he has observed that the foreman does not enter. e. A manager only completes an important project by working through the night. (e; Moderate; Learning; p. 54) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 21. All of the following are true about learning except that it _____. a. involves change b. can have a very short duration c. requires a change in behavior d. requires some form of experience e. affects aptitude b; Moderate; Learning; p. 54) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 22. A cashier starts greeting her customers with a simple “Hello” rather than following the company policy of greeting them with the standard greeting “Thank you for shopping with us”, since she find saying the latter slightly embarrassing. In this case, what is the experience that has led to learning? a. the feeling of embarrassment when she uses the standard company greeting b. the direction of the company to use the standard greeting c. the decision not to use the company greeting d. her use of the informal greeting of “Hello” . the decision of the company to adopt the standard greeting (a; Moderate; Learning; p. 54) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 23. Experiments performed by Ivan Pavlov led to what theory? a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. social learning d. method reproduction e. behavior shaping (a; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) 24. What role did the meat play in Pavlov’s experiment with dogs? a. an unconditioned response b. a conditioned stimulus c. a conditioned response d. a reconditioned stimulus e. an unconditioned stimulus (e; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 5) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 25. Classical conditioning would view which of the following as most likely to be a conditioned response? a. wincing when you stub your toe b. driving on the right side of the road c. flinching when startled by a loud noise d. looking for shelter when the sky turns gray e. mouth watering when you eat delicious food (d; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 26. In Pavlov’s experiment, the bell was a/an _____. a. unconditioned stimulus b. unconditioned response c. conditioned stimulus d. conditioned response e. none of the above c; Easy; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 27. Which of the following is not true of classical conditioning? a. Classical conditioning is passive. b. Classical conditioning can explain simple reflexive behaviors. c. Learning a conditioned response involves building an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. d. A neutral stimulus takes on the properties of a conditioned stimulus. e. Classical conditioning is different in many respects from operant conditioning. (d; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 28.

When Joe gets stressed he often drinks chamomile tea. This calms him since he associates chamomile tea drinking with happy visits with his grandmother in his childhood. The calm feeling brought on by the tea is an example of which of the following? a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. sensory learning d. social learning e. shaping (a; Easy; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 29. Why does classical conditioning theory fail to adequately describe behavior in the workplace? a. Most behavior of individuals in the workplace is reflexive rather than voluntary. b.

Most behavior of individuals in the workplace is emitted rather than elicited. c. Most behavior of individuals in the workplace is complex. d. It is very difficult to determine exactly which conditioned stimulus elicits which response in the workplace. e. Classical conditioning works well describing animal behavior but not human behavior. (b; Challenging; Classical Conditioning; p. 56) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 30. Operant conditioning argues that _____. a. behavior is reflexive b. behavior is unlearned c. behavior is a function of its consequences d. the tendency to repeat a behavior is very strong e. he tendency to repeat a behavior is instinctual (c; Moderate; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) 31. Which of the following researchers thought that reinforcement was the central factor involved in behavioral change? a. Pavlov b. Fayol c. Skinner d. Deming e. Surber (c; Moderate; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) 32. Stella has been late to work often in the past. Stella’s manager tries to change Stella’s behavior by praising her whenever she is on time. However, Stella realizes that this is what he is doing and resents his attempts to manipulate her behavior. This is an example of what problem with behaviorism and OB Mod? . Behaviorism and OB Mod assume that people’s thoughts and feelings in response to their environment are irrelevant. b. Behaviorism and OB Mod put undue emphasis on cognitive processes. c. Behaviorism and OB Mod only have an effect on human subjects when those subjects are unaware that these techniques are being used. d. The best reinforcement to use and the schedule on which it should be used varies widely between individual subjects. e. Behaviorism and OB Mod are based upon simple models of stimulus and response that may not hold true in a complex, real world environment. a; Challenging; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 33. Your boss does not follow through on her promise to pay you double for overtime hours worked. When asked again to work overtime, you decline. This is an application of _____ conditioning. a. classical b. operant c. sensory d. association e. disappointment-weighted (b; Challenging; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 34. According to operant conditioning, when a behavior is not reinforced, what happens to the probability of that behavior occurring again? a. It increases. b. It declines. c. It remains unchanged. . It becomes zero. e. It may increase or decrease based on other factors. (b; Easy; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 35. What do we call the view that we can learn both through observation and direct experience? a. situational learning theory b. classical learning c. social learning theory d. hands-on learning experience e. the Pavlov principle (c; Easy; Social Learning; p. 57) 36. Social learning theory is an extension of _____. a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. shaping d. Pavlovian theory e. continuous reinforcement principles (b; Moderate; Social Learning; p. 7) 37. Isadora observes that when her brother Mikey crosses the street without looking he is punished by their parents. Based on this, she is careful to look before she crosses the street. Isadora has learned through what principle? a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. shaping d. extinction e. social learning theory (e; Challenging; Social Learning; p. 57) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 38. Social learning theory would best describe the learning in what situation? a. An employee works through lunch several days in a row after being told by her boss that she will receive extra pay. b.

A man learns how to perform yoga by watching a videotape of a yoga teacher. c. A child always addresses his grandmother politely after he is given candy as a reward for his good manners. d. A man stops wearing brightly colored shirts to work after being teased for doing so by his co-workers. e. A postal worker’s pulse rate rises whenever she approaches a house where she has been bitten by a dog before. (b; Challenging; Social Learning; p. 57) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 39. Four processes have been found to determine the influence that a model will have on an individual. Which of the following is not one of those processes? . attentional processes b. retention processes c. motor reproduction processes d. reinforcement processes e. consequential processes (e; Moderate; Social Learning; pp. 57-58) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 40. Which of the following processes deals with how well an individual remembers a model’s action after it is no longer readily available? a. attitudinal b. retention c. motor reproduction d. reinforcement e. attention (b; Easy; Social Learning; p. 57) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 41. What do we call the practice of reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior? a. modeling b. haping c. classical conditioning d. social learning e. aping (b; Moderate; Shaping; p. 58) 42. You want to increase the productivity of an employee. Your goal is to have him produce 10 units per day. On the first day he produces 5 units and you give him a reward. On the second day he produces 5 units and you don’t give him a reward. On the third day he produces 6 units and you give him a reward. Which method of behavioral change are you using? a. modeling b. shaping c. classical conditioning d. social learning e. ego impairment (b; Challenging; Shaping; p. 58) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 43.

Using shaping, which of the following is not a method that can be used to change behavior? a. negative reinforcement b. punishment c. counseling d. positive reinforcement e. extinction (c; Easy; Shaping; pp. 58-59) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 44. Which of the following can be used in shaping behavior? a. positive reinforcement b. diminishment c. reaction d. manipulation e. unionization (a; Easy; Shaping; p. 58) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 45. What is it called when a desired response is followed by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant? a. negative reinforcement b. positive reinforcement c. anipulation d. elimination e. psychic withdrawal (a; Moderate; Negative Reinforcement; p. 58) 46. Suspending an employee for dishonest behavior is an example of which method of shaping behavior? a. extinction b. negative reinforcement c. punishment d. poor planning e. reaction (c; Moderate; Punishment; p. 59) 47. Which of the following is an example of the use of extinction in shaping behavior? a. A teacher does not respond to any student who speaks before being called upon. b. A workplace institutes a zero-tolerance policy for drug and alcohol use. c. A manager docks the pay of all workers who arrive late. . A cat owner sprays his cat with water every time it tries to sit on the couch. e. A soccer coach rewards his players with praise and small rewards if they prevent the other team from scoring. (a; Moderate; Extinction; p. 59) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 48. Which of the following statements about positive and negative reinforcement is not true? a. They both result in learning. b. They both strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition. c. They tend to weaken behavior and decrease its subsequent frequency. d. They are effective shaping tools. e. They are often used in learning. c; Challenging; Methods of Shaping Behavior; p. 59) 49. An employee is frequently late for work. Every time he is not tardy the manager compliments him for being on time. What form of reinforcement is the manager using? a. continuous schedule b. negative c. intermittent schedule d. repetitious e. repetitious negative (a; Moderate; Continuous Reinforcement; p. 59) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 50. The corporate audit staff makes a series of randomly timed, unannounced visits to a company office. On each visit they check the records to see that they are up to date and correct. These visits are an example of which of the ollowing? a. positive reinforcement b. variable-interval reinforcement schedule c. continuous reinforcement schedule d. fixed reinforcement schedule e. static response method (b; Moderate; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 51. In which reinforcement schedule is a reward provided after a given number of responses? a. variable-ratio b. fixed-ratio c. variable-interval d. fixed-interval e. viable (b; Moderate; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) 52. According to research, which of the following is a schedule of reinforcement that promotes the greatest resistance to extinction? a. continuous b. ixed interval c. variable interval d. fixed ratio e. negative (c; Moderate; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) 53. In general, _____ reinforcement schedules tend to lead to higher performance than _____ reinforcement schedules. a. variable; fixed b. fixed; intermittent c. fixed; variable d. variable; ratio e. fixed; static (a; Moderate; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 54. The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as _____. a. classical conditioning b. self-management c. reengineering d. OB Mod e. social modeling (d; Moderate; OB Mod; p. 2) 55. Which of the following is one of the steps of the problem-solving model followed by the typical OB Mod program? a. identifying critical behaviors b. reinforcing behavior c. developing horizontally arrayed data d. developing vertically arrayed data e. identifying member barriers (a; Moderate; OB Mod Steps; p. 62) 56. A manager wishes to use OB Mod in order to increase the friendliness of his staff towards customers. The manager starts by determining exactly what behaviors his sales staff needs to use in order to increase their friendliness towards customers. What is the next step that the manager should take? . determine why employees are not friendly towards customers b. develop a strategy for increasing the friendliness of employees towards customers c. reward employees who are friendly towards customers d. record how often employees are friendly to customers at the present time e. establish what is needed to motivate employee friendliness towards customers (d; Moderate; OB Mod Steps; p. 62) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Summary and Implications for Managers 57. Who said “Give me a child at birth and I can make him into anything you want”? a. B. F. Skinner b. Ivan Pavlov c. Sigmund Freud d.

James Emery e. Ben Franklin (a; Moderate; Shaping Behavior; p. 66) TRUE/FALSE Ability 58. Everyone has strengths and weaknesses in terms of ability that make them relatively superior or inferior to others in performing certain tasks or activities. (True; Easy; Ability; p. 45) 59. Ability is the assessment of what one will do. (False; Easy; Ability; p. 45) 60. An individual’s overall abilities are essentially made up of three sets of factors: thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. (False; Moderate; Ability; p. 45) 61. A high I. Q. is a good prerequisite for all jobs. (False; Easy; Intelligent Quotient; p. 45) 62.

It is illegal in the U. S. for employers to use I. Q. tests for employment selection. (False; Moderate; Intelligent Quotient; p. 45) 63. Stamina, dexterity, and strength are dimensions of physical ability. (True; Easy; Nine Basic Physical Abilities; p. 47) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 64. Individuals who have a high score on one dimension of physical ability will usually score high on all other dimensions. (False; Moderate; Physical Abilities; p. 47) Biographical Characteristics 65. Biographical data is easier to acquire than information on employee motivation levels. (True; Easy; Biographical Characteristics; p. 48) 66.

Collecting biographical data is typically a very difficult task in organizations. (False; Easy; Biographical Characteristics; p. 48) 67. Personal characteristics that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records (such as age, sex, and marital status) are called biographical characteristics. (True; Easy; Biographical Characteristics; p. 48) 68. A person’s age is an example of a biographical characteristic. (True; Easy; Biographical Characteristics; p. 48) 69. The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. (True; Moderate; Age; p. 8) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 70. Recent American legislation makes it easier for a company to enforce mandatory retirement. (False; Moderate; Age; p. 48) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 71. Mandatory retirement has become an increasingly rare phenomenon in organizations. (True; Moderate; Age; p. 48) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 72. Age and turnover rates are directly related. (True; Moderate; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 73. Age and avoidable absences are negatively related. (True; Moderate; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 74. Worker’s productivity tends to decline with age. False; Moderate; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 75. Age and job satisfaction are related for professional workers. (True; Moderate; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 76. In general, woman and men desire the same work schedules. (False; Moderate; Gender; p. 50) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 77. There is no significant difference between the absenteeism rates of men and women. (False; Easy; Gender; p. 50) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 78. In employment settings, individuals tend to favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, and pay raises. True; Easy; Race; p. 51) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 79. Mental ability tests used for selection, promotion, training, and similar personnel decisions may have a negative impact on racial and ethnic groups. (True; Challenging; Race; p. 51) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} 80. People who have been on a job longer are more productive than those with less seniority. (True; Moderate; Tenure; p. 52) 81. Tenure is negatively related to absenteeism. (True; Moderate; Tenure; p. 52) 82. Tenure is negatively related to turnover. (True; Moderate; Tenure; p. 52) 83.

Tenure and satisfaction are negatively related. (False; Moderate; Tenure; p. 52) Learning 84. Learning has occurred when there is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. (True; Easy; Learning; p. 54) 85. One can easily observe others learning. (False; Easy; Learning; p. 54) 86. Classical conditioning grew out of the work of B. F. Skinner. (False; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) 87. In Ivan Pavlov’s study, dogs salivated in response to a ringing bell. (True; Easy; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) 88. The meat in Pavlov’s experiment was an unconditioned stimulus. True; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) 89. Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. (True; Challenging; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) 90. To explain why Christmas carols often bring back pleasant memories of childhood, you would use operant conditioning. (False; Challenging; Classical Conditioning; p. 55) 91. Classical conditioning is passive. (True; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 56) 92. Classical conditioning can explain simple reflexive behaviors. (True; Moderate; Classical Conditioning; p. 6) 93. Operant behavior means voluntary or learned behavior in contrast to reflexive or unlearned behavior. (True; Moderate; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) 94. What Pavlov did for operant conditioning, Skinner did for classical conditioning. (False; Challenging; Learning Theories; p. 56) 95. Rewards are most effective if they are delayed following the desired response. (False; Moderate; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) 96. Your supervisor has explained that he will reward those who take extra effort to see that their jobs are done well. This tactic follows from research into operant conditioning. True; Easy; Operant Conditioning; p. 56) 97. Learning through both observation and direct experience is called operant conditioning. (False; Easy; Social Learning; p. 57) 98. Older workers are not as capable of learning as younger employees. (False; Moderate; Age and Learning; p. 58) 99. Trainability is a measure of a person’s willingness to learn. (False; Moderate; Trainability; p. 58) 100. Reduced motivation has been found to significantly influence learning and training outcomes. (True; Moderate; Learning; p. 58) 101. Shaping occurs when we mold individuals by using intensive training to change their behavior quickly. False; Easy; Shaping; p. 58) 102. One method of shaping behavior is called positive reinforcement and occurs when a desired response is followed with something pleasant. (True; Moderate; Positive Reinforcement; p. 58) 103. Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior is called punishment. (False; Moderate; Extinction; p. 59) 104. Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. (True; Easy; Methods of Shaping Behavior; p. 59) 105. Both punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency. (True; Moderate; Methods of Shaping Behavior; p. 59) 06. A continuous reinforcement schedule reinforces the desired behavior each time it is demonstrated. (True; Easy; Continuous Reinforcement; p. 59) 107. A piece-rate incentive plan is an example of a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement. (False; Moderate; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) 108. Salespeople on commission are examples of individuals on a variable-ratio schedule. (True; Moderate; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) 109. In the typical OB Mod program, everything an employee does on his or her job is equally important in terms of performance outcomes. (False; Moderate; OB Mod; p. 62) 110.

The first step in OB Mod is to identify critical behaviors impacting the employee’s performance. (True; Moderate; OB Mod Steps; p. 62) 111. Our knowledge about learning suggests that punishment is a more effective tool in OB mod than reinforcement. (False; Moderate; OB Mod and Reinforcement Theory; p. 63) SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of Biographical Characteristics You work in the air filter manufacturing business. Your division is made up of three other people with very different biographical characteristics. Gina is 27 years old, single and female. She has been with the company only six months.

Jonathan is 63 years old and a widower who has been with the company for thirty years. Sally is a single mother with four children who has been with the company for five years. 112. Based on the information given, which employee would be least likely to quit his or her job? a. all these employees would have about the same likelihood of quitting b. Gina c. Jonathan d. Sally e. Gina and Sally (c; Moderate; Age; p. 48) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 113. Based on the information given, which employee would you expect to have the lowest rate of avoidable absence? a. ll these employees would have about the same rate of avoidable absence b. Sally c. Gina d. Jonathan e. Gina and Sally would probably have equally low rates (d; Moderate; Age; p. 48) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 114. Based on the information given, which employee would you expect to most desire the option to telecommute or arrange a more flexible work schedule? a. all these employees would have the same desire for these options b. Jonathan c. Sally d. Gina e. Gina and Sally (c; Moderate; Gender; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

Application of Learning Theory—Shaping Behavior You are the first-line supervisor for a group of employees who make cheese slicers. Their job is not terribly interesting or challenging and you have noticed that they are frequently tardy returning from their breaks. You have studied the concept of shaping behavior and decide that you will try to apply it to this situation. 115. You praise Allen for returning on time from break. This is an example of _____. a. negative reinforcement b. positive reinforcement c. extinction d. social learning e. modeling (b; Moderate; Positive Reinforcement; p. 8) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 116. You want Allison to take an accounting course so that she can help with the bookkeeping. Allison does not want to go to night school to take the course and has been resisting. You know that her least favorite duty is preparing payroll. You tell her that she will be given extra help with preparing payroll whenever she takes an accounting class. This is an example of _____. a. positive reinforcement b. negative reinforcement c. punishment d. extinction e. classical conditioning (b; Challenging; Negative Reinforcement; p. 58) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 117.

Sam is late coming back to work and you dock his pay. This is an example of _____. a. positive reinforcement b. negative reinforcement c. punishment d. extinction e. classical conditioning (c; Moderate; Punishment; p. 59) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Different Schedules of Reinforcement You have decided to experiment with the relationship between reinforcement schedules and maintaining desired employee behavior. You are interested in observing the differences between continuous and intermittent reinforcement and between the various types of intermittent reinforcement schedules. 118.

Veronica is paid $10. 00 per dozen units that she produces. This is an example of _____ reinforcement. a. intermittent, fixed-interval b. continuous c. intermittent, variable-interval d. negative e. none of the above (a; Challenging; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 119. Gerald is a staff accountant who is visited several times a year by the corporate auditor. These visits are unannounced. This is an example of _____reinforcement. a. intermittent, fixed-interval b. continuous c. intermittent, variable-interval d. negative e. reactive (c; Challenging; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 0) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 120. John’s attendance has historically been unreliable and you have decided to use reinforcement and compliment him when his attendance record shows improvement. The most effective schedule of reinforcement will probably be _____. a. variable-interval intermittent b. fixed-interval intermittent c. continuous d. punishment-based e. shaped (a; Challenging; Intermittent Reinforcement; p. 60) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 121. You know that the reinforcement schedule that your firm chooses for compensation will have an impact on the behavior of employees.

Which of the following is not likely based on available research? a. Continuous reinforcement schedules will lead to early satiation. b. Continuous reinforcement schedules are appropriate for newly emitted, unstable, or low-frequency responses. c. Variable schedules do not clearly link performance and rewards. d. Fixed schedules will lead to higher performance than variable schedules. e. Variable schedules will be highly effective. (d; Challenging; Reinforcement Schedules and Behavior; p. 60) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Behavior Modification Your manager has read about the now-classic study of Emery’s use of OB Mod.

He was impressed by the savings to the company of $2 million over a three-year period. He has announced that he is implementing an OB Mod program at your organization. 122. You can expect to see the application of which of the following in the work setting? a. reinforcement concepts to individuals b. open book management c. additional stock option plans d. analysis of biographical characteristics e. higher health care benefits (a; Easy; OB Mod; p. 62) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 123. What is the first step that your manager is likely to take? a. identify behavioral consequences b. identify critical behaviors c. evaluate performance improvement . develop baseline data e. none of the above (b; Challenging; OB Mod Steps; p. 62) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 124. In the first step of the OB Mod program, your manager will most likely be attempting to identify those five to ten percent of behaviors that may account for up to _____ percent of each employee’s performance. a. 20-25 b. 40-50 c. 60-70 d. 70-80 e. 100 (d; Challenging; OB Mod Steps; p. 62) SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 125. Why is the relationship between age and job performance likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade? First, there is a widespread belief that job performance declines with increasing age.

Regardless of whether it’s true or not, many people believe it and act on it. Second is the reality that the workforce is aging. Workers age 55 and older are currently the fastest-growing sector of the labor force. The third reason is that U. S. legislation, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. (Easy; Age; p. 49) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 126. Has research indicated the existence of gender differences in job productivity? Explain. There is little evidence indicating that an employee’s gender affects his or her job productivity.

In this area of study the similarities between male and female workers seems to far outweigh the very minor differences (for example, in the area of absenteeism) that have been found in some studies. (Easy; Gender; p. 50) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 127. What is learning? Learning is defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. (Easy; Learning; p. 54) 128. How can managers shape employee behavior? Managers can shape employee behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the individual closer to the desired response.

Managers can mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps. Reinforcement increases as responses more closely approximate the desired behavior. Managers may use positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction to promote this gradual shaping of employee behavior. (Easy; Shaping; p. 58) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 129. Give an example of a fixed-ratio schedule for paying employees and an example of a variable-ratio schedule for payment. In a fixed-ratio schedule, rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.

For example, a worker is rewarded with a piece rate system paying $10 for every 12 widgets produced. Each dozen earns the worker another $10. A variable-ratio schedule provides variable reward relative to the behavior of the individual. For example, a car salesman on commission is on a variable-ratio schedule. Each potential customer does not necessarily result in a sale and thus a commission. (Easy; Intermittent Reinforcement; pp. 59-60) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 130. What is ability? What are the two sets of factors comprising a person’s ability level?

Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a given job. It is a current assessment of what one can do. An individual’s overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical abilities. 1) Intellectual abilities are those needed to perform mental activities. 2) Physical abilities are important for successfully performing jobs that are more standardized which require manual labor. (Easy; Ability; p. 45-47) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 131. What is the relationship between age and the organizational issues of productivity, turnover and satisfaction?

This is a somewhat complex set of relationships. The older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job. Older workers are less likely to resign than are younger workers because their long tenure tends to provide them with higher wage rates, longer paid vacations, and more attractive pension benefits. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees. However, they also have higher rates of unavoidable absence, probably due to the poorer heath associated with aging and the longer recovery that older workers need when injured.

The demands of most jobs, even those with heavy manual labor requirements, are not extreme enough for any declines in physical skills due to age to have an impact on productivity; or if there is some decay due to age, it is offset by gains due to experience. The evidence is mixed when examining the relationship between age and job satisfaction, however. Most studies indicate a positive association between age and satisfaction, at least up to age 60. Other studies, however, have found a U-shaped relationship.

Satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years. (Moderate; Age; p. 48) {AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity} {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 132. Identify and briefly describe the five steps of a typical OB Mod program. The typical OB Mod program follows a five-step problem-solving model: identifying critical behaviors, developing baseline data, identifying behavioral consequences, developing and implementing an intervention strategy, and evaluating performance improvement. ) The first step is to identify the critical behaviors that make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance. 2) The second step requires the manager to develop some baseline performance data. This is obtained by determining the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under present conditions. 3) The third step is to perform a functional analysis to identify the behavioral contingencies or consequences of performance. This tells the manager the antecedent cues that emit the behavior and the consequences that are currently maintaining it. ) In the fourth step, the manager develops and implements an intervention strategy to strengthen desirable performance behaviors and weaken undesirable behaviors. 5) The final step is to evaluate performance improvement. (Moderate; OB Mod Steps; p. 62) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 133. How do we learn? Identify and discuss the theories to explain the process by which we acquire patterns of behavior. Be sure to specifically identify the key elements of each of these theories by name. Classical conditioning was discovered by Pavlov.

Learning a conditioned response involves building up an association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus in order to invoke the performance of a conditioned response, which was formerly an unconditioned response. When the stimuli, one compelling and the other one neutral, are paired, the neutral one becomes a conditioned stimulus and, hence, takes on the properties of the unconditioned stimulus and leads to the performance of a conditioned response (which is the same response as the original unconditioned response).

Skinner, who discovered operant conditioning, argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. People learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. Operant behavior means voluntary or learned behavior in contrast to reflexive or unlearned behavior. The tendency to repeat such behavior is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by the consequences of the behavior and can be manipulated through positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, shaping, and extinction.

Social learning is the theory that we can learn through both observation and direct experience. Social learning theory is an extension of operant conditioning; it assumes that behavior is a function of consequences – it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and the importance of perception to learning. People respond to how they perceive and define consequences, not to the objective consequences themselves. (Challenging; Learning Theories; pp. 54 to 57) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 34. Discuss the four processes management should include when creating employee training programs. The likelihood that training programs will be successful can be improved with the inclusion of attentional, retention, motor reproduction, and reinforcement processes. People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us in our estimation.

A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the model is no longer readily available. After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This motor reproduction process demonstrates that the individuals can perform the modeled activities. Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. (Moderate; Social Learning; pp. 57-58) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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