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w w w e tr . X m eP e ap UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS International General Certificate of Secondary Education .c rs om * 0 3 7 8 3 7 2 9 7 3 * ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE Paper 2 Reading and Writing (Extended) Candidates answer on the Question Paper. No Additional Materials are required. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES. Answer all questions.

Dictionaries are not allowed. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. 0510/22 October/November 2012 2 hours For Examiner’s Use Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5 Exercise 6 Exercise 7 Total This document consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page. DC (LEO/SW) 53413/4 © UCLES 2012 [Turn over 2 Exercise 1 Read the following article about the equipment you need when learning to paint, and then answer the questions on the opposite page. Starting to Paint

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Taking up a new hobby usually means that you have to buy some basic equipment to get started. If you have decided that you want to learn how to paint, then you will need to know a little bit about what you have to buy and how to choose what you need. Choosing the Paint Learning to paint is similar to learning a new language: both require practice and patience. First, you have to choose which paint you are going to use. Acrylic paints are good to start with as they are quick-drying. Acrylic paints are excellent for achieving smooth, plain colours and are quite easy to use on their own without the need to mix them.

If you do want to mix the paints, however, there can be problems. By the time the mixture is made, the paint may be too dry to be used. Oil paint, on the other hand, provides a deeper colour, but is much more difficult to use. It takes a long time to dry, simply because the paint is oil-based rather than water-based. You should also remember that each colour has a different drying rate. Mixing the paint You need an easy-to-clean surface on which to mix the paint and you will find a wide variety of mixing surfaces available. These are called palettes. It’s best to mix paint with a palette knife, as it is specially designed for this purpose.

It is not a good idea to mix paint with brushes because they absorb some of it and you will not have enough paint left to work with. Brushes There are four main shapes of brush to choose from. ‘Rounds’ have bristles which come to a point so that you can create precise lines. ‘Flats’ are good for applying areas of colour and for creating straight edges. ‘Filberts’ are tongue-shaped and allow you to create broad or narrow marks that can be curved. Finally, ‘Brights’ are short and useful for applying short strokes of thick colour. Painting surfaces Deciding what surface you want to paint on is important.

At the beginning it is probably best to start with paper because it is cheap and easy to prepare. It’s best to buy blocks of paper that have been specially prepared so that the paper doesn’t change shape when wet and then cause the paint to crack. When you are more confident you can begin to consider painting on other surfaces such as canvas and wood. © UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 3 (a) How is learning to paint like learning a new language? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1] For Examiner’s Use (b) What problem can occur if you want to mix acrylic paints? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1] (c) In which ways is oil paint different from acrylic paint? Give two details. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1] (d) Why are you advised not to use a brush to mix paint? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1] (e) Which type of brush would you use if you wanted to paint accurate lines? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1] (f) Why are you recommended to start by painting on paper? Give two details. ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1] (g) What can happen if paper is not properly prepared for painting? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1] (h) What other surfaces can painters use as they become more used to painting? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1] [Total: 8] © UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 [Turn over 4 Exercise 2 Read the following article about television, and then answer the questions on the opposite page. Television Television viewing continues to grow around the world, even though the internet is now widely used for entertainment. This may be because the number of ways of watching television has increased. High definition technology, digital television, the use of digital video recorders and now 3D technology all contribute to enjoyable viewing experiences.

Research reveals that a typical person views almost 200 minutes of television a day. The chart below shows what the situation is in a variety of regions around the world. Average Daily TV Viewing 300 250 200 Time (in minutes) 150 100 50 0 North Middle America East Europe Latin AsiaAmerica Pacific Africa Region We know that many people watch a lot of television so it is important to ask what effect this may have on children. Research suggests that having the TV on may have a bad effect on young children’s language development by reducing the amount of conversation between child and adult.

It was found that when the TV was audible, the number of words spoken by either adult or child reduced considerably. Surprisingly, even children who watched programmes that were described as educational and specifically aimed at them learnt fewer new words than children who did not watch the programmes. Unless further research shows that children under two years old might benefit from TV, parents should encourage language activities through imaginative play. While there is some evidence that a little TV viewing may be beneficial for the over twos, the evidence for those younger is less certain.

It is argued that first words are learnt far more effectively from real people than from voices on the television. In the USA there is a formal recommendation that children under two years old should not be exposed to TV or computer screens, and a growing body of evidence is now causing governments and health authorities around the world to consider issuing similar guidelines. However, parents could choose to limit viewing to an hour a day for their three- to fiveyear-olds. Childhood is a critical period for brain development and the formation of behaviour patterns.

Parents have a responsibility to ensure that the right conditions exist for these developments. It is very helpful if parents can teach their children how to use their leisure time more effectively. They can introduce their children to sports, music or other hobbies. An expert in child behaviour said, "Children can easily be influenced by the programmes they watch and this can result in a wide variety of psychological problems. Often parents do not know what their children are watching on television, and it may be that they are being exposed to programmes which are unsuitable. Research also shows that television viewing leads to a decrease in physical activity and an increase in the consumption of sugary drinks and unhealthy snacks. In particular, children should not have televisions in their bedrooms as this encourages them to be inactive. Researchers had expected that by the age of seven the influence of early television viewing on children would have disappeared. However, they were shocked to find that the early experience of television viewing continued to have long-term harmful effects on school performance and on health. UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 5 (a) How have new technologies affected television viewing around the world? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1] (b) According to the chart, in which two regions do people watch between 200 and 250 minutes of television a day? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1[1]c) How does watching television affect children’s language development? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [1[1]d) What unexpected effect did educational programmes have on young children’s development? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1[1]e) What guidelines are the governments of some countries considering issuing? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [2[2]f) Why is it important for parents to know which television programmes their children are watching? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1[1]g) How is television viewing bad for physical health? Give two details. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. [2[2]h) What did researchers find particularly shocking as a result of their work? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [1[1]i) What can parents do to prevent their children from watching too much television? Give four details. ………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [4[4]T[Total: 14] UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 For Examiner’s Use [T[Turn over 6 Exercise 3 Christophe Lautrec lives at 34 Place Victor Hugo, in Vannes, a town in France.

He enjoys many sports, particularly skiing, but he has never tried surfing. He has friends who are expert surfers and they are always encouraging him to learn how to surf. They believe that he would be good at it because his skiing experience suggests he has a good sense of balance. Recently, his best friend, Marc Benoit, called Christophe on his mobile, 0676448250, and told him that Jacques Depoint, Gerard Monet and himself were all planning to go on a surfing holiday that they had read about in a leaflet at college. They wanted to know if he would like to go along as well.

Christophe asked his parents, Vincent and Marie Lautrec, if they would allow him to go away with his friends. They were happy for him to go as he had recently had his eighteenth birthday and had done very well in his exams. They felt that he deserved a reward. His father even said that he would pay the 500 Euros which was the cost of the holiday and which included all meals. He gave Christophe his credit card number 82713001 so that he could arrange the payment for all of the group. His friends would then repay his father in cash. Christophe’s friends were delighted when they heard that he could go.

They immediately asked him to be the group leader and sort out all the arrangements, because he is good at that sort of thing. Christophe booked with the company his friends had already identified. It was called, ‘Les Surfers’. Vincent insisted that Christophe should have the full course of beginner’s lessons with ‘Les Surfers’ before he actually went surfing with his friends. Surfing can be dangerous and he did not want his son to try it without being well prepared. His mother also insisted that Christophe made the company aware of the fact that he had recently had an operation on his arm following a skiing accident.

She was quite worried about his arm and hoped that it would be strong enough to take the strain of surfing. Christophe was very confident that he was fit enough to do everything, but he was a little concerned about Gerard, who had quite a serious allergy to nuts and could become very ill if he ate something that contained nuts and did not get immediate medical attention. Finally, all the arrangements were made, and the group chose to fly from Paris on flight AF 369, which would land at Heathrow in England at 3pm. They would then have to get a train which would arrive at the surfing resort of Newquay at 8pm.

The travelling would not be easy and so they decided not to take their own equipment but to hire it from the company. Jacques had done this before when he went surfing in California, and he said that it was very convenient. Imagine you are Christophe. Fill in the form on the opposite page, using the information above. © UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 7 For Examiner’s Use ‘Les Surfers’ Group Booking Form Section A: Personal details Name of group leader: ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Name(s) of other member(s) of group: …………………………………………………………………………. Group leader’s address: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Group leader’s telephone contact: ……………………………………………………………………………….. Group leader’s age: …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Section B: Holiday details Flight reference: (please tick) AF 139 arrival time 8pm AF 369 arrival time 3pm AF 319 arrival time 4pm Which package is required? (please tick) accommodation only half board (bed and breakfast) full board (bed and all meals) How many beginner’s courses are required? ………………………………………………………………… Method of payment: (please circle) cash cheque credit card If paying by credit card please give number: …………………………………………………………………. Do you wish to hire surfing equipment?

YES/NO (please delete) How did you find out about our company? …………………………………………………………………….. Section C In the space below, write one sentence of between 12 and 20 words, giving details of any medical conditions that you and other members of your group may have. [Total: 8] UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 [T[Turn over 8 Exercise 4 Read the following article about a photographer who takes pictures of the oldest living things in the world, and then complete the notes on the opposite page.

Photographing the Extraordinary It all began with a trip to Japan. Sara Evans, a photographer from New York, had gone there to take pictures of different landscapes. During her visit, people kept telling her to go and see an amazing cedar tree, which was said to be thousands of years old. Sara was so fascinated by her trip to see this ancient tree that she started a project to photograph the oldest living things in the world. Sara only photographs living things which are at least 2,000 years old and have lived continuously for the whole of that period.

So far, she has photographed more than 20 life forms. Some of these look alien, as if from another planet. However, they are here on Earth, and many have existed since mankind took the first steps. Sara has travelled widely to find subjects to photograph. In the high Andes she photographed the 3,000-year-old Ilareta plant, which is an extraordinary relative of parsley and grows on smooth, round boulders. The shrub is a dense mass of thousands of branches, each ending in a bud with tiny green leaves. The shrub is so solid you can stand on top of it.

On a road trip in Namibia, she managed to find a 2,000-year-old Welwitschia plant. This plant grows only two leaves, which then get shredded in sandstorms. Having overcome her fear of water, Sara took her camera under water in the Caribbean, and there she took pictures of 2,000-year-old coral; she said that the sheer size of it took her breath away. In a Science Institute in Copenhagen, Sara found a 500,000-year-old bacterium that had been gathered from the Siberian permafrost. The project is expected to take two more years to complete.

In that time Sara plans to photograph 5,000-year-old moss in Antarctica, a 10,000-year-old shrub in Tasmania and a 23,000-year-old fig tree in Sri Lanka. Sara hopes to have visited every continent on earth by the time she finishes the project. She always works closely with biologists, and often visits scientists when they are doing research in their place of work. Sara is constantly worried about how to finance her travels but she uses a website which collects donations from anyone interested in supporting such projects. Sara is keen to explain that her project is not just about beautiful pictures.

She is also very concerned about the destruction of the environment and says that all of the living things that she has photographed, which have survived for unimaginable amounts of time, are now in danger. "The Siberian bacteria are half a million years old and live in the permafrost. If the permafrost isn’t permanent, then the oldest living things on the planet will die. Maybe my photographs will encourage people to think about looking after our planet. ” © UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 9 Your school photography club has asked you to give a talk about Sara’s project.

Prepare some notes to use as the basis of your talk. Make your notes under each heading. For Examiner’s Use Common features of the living things that Sara photographs • • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Places Sara has visited and what she found in each place • • • • Japan, cedar tree ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. The concerns that Sara has • • • ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………… [Total: 8] UCLES 2012 0510/22/O/N/12 [Turn over 10 Exercise 5 Read the following article about children who do not go to school but who are educated at home. On the opposite page, write a summary about the advantages of home education. Your summary should be about 100 words long (and no more than 120 words). You should use your own words as far as possible. You will receive up to 6 marks for the content of your summary, and up to 4 marks for the style and accuracy of your language.

Home Education When people think about the education of children, they usually think about schools. However, for a considerable number of children around the world education does not mean going to school, it means being taught at home in the family. It is legal to home educate in many countries, although in Germany, Greece, Hong Kong and Brazil it is illegal. Parents who choose to home educate argue that many people have forgotten that, for young children at least, home education was the preferred option for anyone who could afford it up to quite recently.

They argue that children learn better in the comfort of their own homes. They are also free to interact with their parents and other adults in a way that allows them to explore areas that interest them, at their own pace. Supporters of home education say that children are not restricted by the subject matter of a narrow curriculum or by the content of school books. This has the effect of making them enjoy the process of learning. Yet the range of subjects taught, other people argue, may depend on the sometimes limited knowledge of one parent.

Another problem may be that children learn only one point of view on any topic. Home educators believe that school creates an artificial and highly stressful social situation that young children in particular find difficult to deal with. Home educated children are free from stress and appear to get on better with © UCLES 2012 their brothers and sisters, creating a more peaceful and harmonious home atmosphere. However, there may be a reduction in children’s contact with their peers and they may lose the ability to make friends of their own age.

It is also claimed by believers in this system that the children find it easier to socialise with adults because they are not part of the formal culture that characterises school life. This has long-term advantages because it means that if children encounter problems they are not forced to seek advice solely from people as young as themselves. They can turn to older family members for a more mature perspective on the problems they are facing. Travelling to and from school is tiring and timeconsuming. Children educated at school often arrive home exhausted with little energy left to complete their homework and no time to relax.

Home educated children do not need to waste their time on travel and are free to use their time and energy more productively. Not everyone agrees with all of the advantages that are claimed by home educators and many actively oppose it as a system. One very serious area of concern is the fact that it is difficult to check on the progress of children who are home educated. There have been examples of unsuccessful home education where children have not been learning effectively. Education authorities have been unaware of these cases and therefore unable to help the children concerned.

No doubt the debate about whether it is better to home educate or send children to school will continue for many years to come. 0510/22/O/N/12 11 For Examiner’s Use ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………..

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