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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Background to the study Social networking is a growing field in this contemporary world. Social networking sites make it possible for people to interact with absent others in the society. Social networking sites also allow people or users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual network. In fact, different social networking sites are used today and these, to a large extent, have increased social relationships among people as we can now interact with absent others without their physical presence.

Social networking sites such as Facebook, 2go, Twitter, MySpace, Whatsapp and other instant messaging applications have helped people to share interests and also, dating online has become a growing issue in this contemporary world. The importance of social network cannot be over-emphasized in people’s life as many people are now able to maintain long-distance relationships without physical contact and this, to a large extent, has increased the social bond among people. For instance, one can decide to chat online, through social networking site, with one’s relative abroad.

Also, the presence of social networking site has helped many students to acquire knowledge from one another over internet without necessarily have to meet physically. In fact, one wonders how it would be possible if there is no instant messaging and other social networking sites to perform this operation. On the other hand, social networking sites have caused many problems. For instance many students have lost their lives and property to thieves and got exposed to incurable diseases directly or indirectly through social networking sites.

Likewise, many people are using these sites to commit atrocities such as defrauding or swindling people of their money and other properties. Therefore, social networking sites have brought both good and bad to the present generation and it is also meaningful to say that the good and bad consequences of using social networking sites depend on the usage by the people and what they want to achieve with it. 2. Statement of the problem In this contemporary world, there are growing uses of different social networking sites which have contributed to people’s life positively and negatively.

What people, especially students use social networking sites for make it seem that social networking is detrimental to students life. Many have assumed that social networking sites are socially injurious as it has affected the social life of people in terms of its contribution to moral decadence manifesting in indecent dressing, crimes and prostitution. Therefore, it will be meaningful to look at the effects of social networking sites on students’ social life so as to know the social impact of social networking sites.

A similar study about the effects of social networking sites on students’ academic performance was carried out in Malaysia, United States of America, and United Kingdom where it was found out that students’ academic performance was not affected by social networking sites. A study carried out on the students of the University of Hampshire also showed that social networking is being integrated with rather than interfering with students’ academic performance (Martin. C. 2009).

This is the first time an evaluation of the effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of Obafemi Awolowo University students. Most research that had been done on the effects of social networking sites on academic performance of students is not on Nigerian students so making a generalization to this effect could be erroneous. Therefore, due to little or lack of cogent literature on the effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of Nigerian student, hence, this study.

This study, when concluded will contribute immensely to literature on effects of social networking sites on academic performance of Obafemi Awolowo University students and Nigerian students at large. However, the assumptions by many people that social networking sites have made students lose focus because of the temptation to abandon their homework, reading times in preference for chatting online with their friends on their preferred social networking sites and thus reduce academic performance of student using it as a vague one because social networking sites have helped in a number of ways.

In other word, this is a vague or an incorrect assumption as there is no practical evidence to underpin or support this beyond a reasonable doubt. In fact, social networking sites have made many students to be socially informed as against the times when social networking sites were not operational. Moreover, many students indulged in using social networking sites and yet, performing well in school or organization. So, it would be wrong to assume that social networking sites would affect the performance of students in school because social networking site has its own importance.

On this note, it will be reasonable to look at the social networking sites and students’ academic performance so as to reach a conclusion whether social networking sites have affected the performance of students in school or not. Also, students are different in terms of the social networking sites and preference for each social networking site because of the purpose that each of these networking sites serves them.

This is the reason why it would be necessary to look at the preference students have for each social networking site in order to understand the mostly preferred social networking site among OAU students. 3. Research questions In line with the aforementioned problems, the following research questions are raised: What is the extent of use of social networking sites among OAU students? How does sex of the students determine the preferred site? III. What are the impacts of social networking sites on OAU students’ social life?

IV. What is the relationship between social networking and students’ academic performance in OAU? V. Which social networking site is the most preferred among OAU students? 4. Research objectives This study is designed to investigate the impact of social networking sites on the social life and academic performance among OAU students. Specifically, the objectives of this study are to i. determine the extent of use of networking sites by OAU students; ii. examine the influence of sex differences on preferred sites; iii. nvestigate the impacts of social networking sites on students’ social life in OAU; iv. discover the relationship between social networking sites and students’ academic performance and; v. investigate the mostly preferred social networking sites among OAU students. 1. 5. Significance of the study The study is significant in that it attempts to investigate the impacts of social networking sites on academic performance of Obafemi Awolowo University students. In this, the study will examine some salient issues such as the relationship between sex of students and preference of social etworking sites, the relationship between social networking sites and student academic performance, and the investigation of the mostly preferred social networking site among Obafemi Awolowo University students. Firstly, by examining these previously stated objectives, those in active service or workers in various organizations stand a greater chance of benefiting from this study because they will be sensitized on the impacts of social networking sites on students’ social life and subsequently sensitize students on how to make a rightful use of social networking sites.

Secondly, the study will increase the body of knowledge in the literature in the sense that all areas that are not fully touched or explored in the literature will be extensively explored and this process will subsequently help to increase the body of knowledge in the literature so that users of the literature on social networking will be able to use the results of this study and set a ground for new research in this area. Finally, all upcoming researchers will benefit immensely from the results of this study in the sense that the results of this study will further help to set or a foothold to conduct their own study in this area. . 6. Scope of the study This study is a case study of Obafemi Awolowo University students on the use of social networking sites. This study will examine the effects of social networking sites on student social life, the relationship between social networking sites and student’s academic performance, and the investigation of mostly preferred social networking site among Obafemi Awolowo University students. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents the review of literature of the research that has been conducted in this field of study.

Therefore, the review is woven around social networking sites and social life, social networking sites and students’ academic performance, and the most preferred social networking site. 2. 1. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Social networking site is a type of virtual communication that allows people to connect with each other. This concept arises from basic need of human beings to stay together in groups forming a community. Michael Wesch, cultural anthropologist at Kansas State University, compared the tribal societies to online social networking.

Like the tribal culture, in Facebook people project their identity by demonstrating their relationships to each other. You define yourself in terms of who your friends are (Wright, 2007). Wikipedia defines social network service as online platform that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Social networking sites, email, instant messaging, video- and photo- sharing sites and comment posting are all tools that help people to communicate and socialize with each other (Mooney, 2009). The first social networking site SixDegrees. om was launched in 1997. It allowed users to create profiles, list their friends and surf the friends list (Boyd D. M, & Ellison N. B, 2007). Starting from 1997 to 2010 there are some 1. 5 billion users of social networking websites (Kreutz, 2009). People join social networking sites because it gives them an opportunity to express their views, a feel of independency and self esteem. It takes a few seconds to create a virtual profile and connect with millions of users across the world, becomes more interesting because you can stay connected with old friends and family members.

But now, using social media or networking sites like Facebook and Twitter have become part and parcel of modern adolescence or students in many schools or homes. In fact, this generation is the first to have gone through their entire teen years with Facebook and other social networking sites at their fingertips. However, communications media whether pen and paper, phone calls, Facebook, or Twitter can worsen or alleviate the students’ social life or even do both at the same time.

According to a survey, 90% of all American teens have used social media, three-quarters of them have a social networking profile, and nearly one in three teens visits their social networking profile several times a day or more. Given how pervasive social media are today, many parents, educators, and other adults are deeply interested in the role of these media in students’ or teens’ lives. Some are optimistic about the potential benefits of social media for learning, development, and creativity; others are concerned about the negative impact these media may have, especially when it comes to teens’ social and emotional well-being.

An emerging set of survey research helps document and quantify young people’s use of social network sites and looks at the tone of their online communications (Lenhardt A, 2011). And a growing body of in-depth qualitative research helps capture the complexities and nuances of the way social media use plays out in teens’ lives (Boyd D. M, 2009; Turkle S, 2011; Ito, 2010). These in-depth ethnographies of young people paint a detailed portrait of how social media can affect an individual teen’s life, offering the nuances that a large-scale survey cannot.

Some of these researches have focused on young people whose social media use had led to anxiety or estrangement from family and friends (Turkle S, 2011), while other researches have highlighted those teens for whom social media use has facilitated important connections and amazing accomplishments (Ito M, 2010). Allen, J. P, Evans, M. A, Hare, A. L, & Mikami, A. Y. (2010) hypothesized that the young people who participated in online social networking would be more socially adjusted. They also examined how adult communication was affected, which will be discussed later in this review.

The researchers conducted a longitudinal study on 172 participants. First, they surveyed and interviewed preteens on their peer sociometric status, positive and negative peer interaction, and symptoms of depression. The mothers of these preteens were surveyed about their children’s deviant behaviors. When participants reached young adulthood, the researchers asked for access to their facebook pages if they possessed one. Allen et al. coded 92 Facebook pages for number of friends, connection with friends, friend displays of support, hostile profile biographies, and inappropriate pictures.

They also surveyed these 92 young adults on the quality of their friendships and symptoms of depression. Finally, they asked friends of the participants to complete the Young Adult Behavior Checklist. After performing an ordinary least squares hierarchical multiple regressions on each variable, these Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development researchers found preteens who had displayed negativity in friendships and reported symptoms of depression were less likely to possess a social networking profile.

In contrast, early adolescents who reported more positive intimate friendships were more liable to possess a webpage. This article also supports the rich get richer theory. Kramer N. C and Winter S (2008) did a study on how self? esteem, extraversion, self? efficacy, and self? presentation are affected by online social networking. Their first hypothesis explored the relationship between presenting oneself on social networking sites and extraversion. They conducted their study on 58 young people who were members of studiVZ, which is a German social networking website much like Facebook.

These youths completed a survey on their level of extraversion, self? esteem, and ability to effectively present themselves. Then the participant’s profiles were assessed based on numbers of friends, groups, photos, biographical fields completed, and words. They also checked profiles for real names, political leanings, and relationship status. The researchers conducted a multivariate analysis of variance using extroversion as the stable factor. They discovered a positive correlation existed between extraverted individuals and a more creative profile picture.

However, no other significant relationships showed up in their analysis. These research findings were inconclusive and support neither the rich get richer nor the social compensation hypothesizes. DeGroot, J. M. , Ledbetter, A. M. , Mao, Y. , Meyer, K. R. , & Swafford, B. (2011) conducted an extensive study on young people’s feelings towards socially connecting online and self? disclosure as predictors of communication on facebook as well as the level of intimacy in relationships. Their study included nine hypotheses, two of which are relevant to this examination of findings on the two motive hypotheses.

The researchers ask if online social connection (OSC) has a positive relationship Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development with the frequency of face? to? face communication with Facebook friends and if communicating on Facebook is positively correlated with personal interactions with Facebook friends. There were 325 Facebook users who participated in this study. They were surveyed on their attitude towards online communication and then asked questions about a randomly selected facebook friend.

These questions included where the friend lived, amount of facebook communication with this friend, non? Internet communication with this friend, and how close they were to this friend. After analysis, the results showed that OSC has a positive relationship with communication via Facebook when online self-disclosure is low. They also found that personal interaction with a friend made it very probable for Facebook communication to occur. Evidence for the rich get richer hypothesis is shown in this study.

Regan P and Seeves V (2010) analyzed research and discussed the way online social networking could empower young people. The authors explained that adolescents have been the first to use social networking sites because their age group is predisposed to focus on peer interactions and social relations. They also discussed the social capital model and describe the way in which social networking websites allow young people to maintain existing friendships, make new friends, and search for past friends in order to renew old relationships.

Thus online social networks are able to both bridge and bond social capital by Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development 10connecting large groups of people in loose networks and allowing for communication that fosters relationship closeness. In their final comments on relationships the authors suggest that self? esteem may be boosted by the relationships and feelings of connection and integration these social networks provide. These relationships in networks might even help socially isolated youths feel more included.

People spent hours chatting with their friends and browsing profiles on social networking sites. It becomes a compulsive habit to visit own profile several times in a day for checking friends’ updates, changing status, and commenting on others photos and videos. Finally it diverts employee’ attention from the office work. A study conducted by Nucleus Research with 237 corporate employees shows 77 percent of them use Facebook during work hours. And it results in 1. 5% drop in employee productivity for those companies allowing full access to Facebook (Gaudin, S 2009). Another study y Robert Half Technology, an IT staffing firm, says “54% of U. S. companies have banned workers from using social networking sites while on the job” (Gaudin, 2009). This was further affirmed by a survey of 3500 UK companies, it says 233 million hours are lost every month as a result of employees wasting time on social networking sites (“Facebook costs business,” 2007). Mike Huss, director of employment law at Peninsula says “All firms should block access to sites such as Facebook. Why should employers allow their workers to waste two hours a day on Facebook when they are being paid to do a job”.

Portsmouth City Council blocked access to Facebook after it found its 4,500 staff logged on for 270,000 times a month, and they collectively waste 572 hours (71 working days) in just one month (Kisiel, 2009). This problem is much intense in developed countries and, in extreme cases, the employees are sacked because of this. After all it is a waste of public money because of social networking sites. According to a report from a Common Sense Media Research Study, many more teens reported a positive impact of social media use on their emotional well-being than a negative one.

Most teens don’t think their use of social media affects their social and emotional well-being one way or the other. But there are some teens who think that using social media does affect how they feel about themselves and their social situation. More than one in four teens say that using their social networking site makes them feel less shy (29%) and more outgoing (28%); one in five says it makes them feel more confident (20%), more popular (19%), and more sympathetic to others (19%); and 15% say it makes them feel better about themselves.

By comparison, only 5% say social networking makes them feel less outgoing; 4% feel worse about themselves, less confident, and less popular after using their social networking site; and 3% feel shyer. Very few teens think that using their social network site makes them more depressed. Among all teen social network users, only 5% say using their social networking site makes them feel more depressed, compared to 10% who say it makes them feel less depressed.

Even among the least happy teens in this study (the 10% of all teens who say they are often sad or depressed and aren’t very happy with their lives), 18% say using their social networking site makes them feel more depressed, while 13% say it lessens their depression. In particular, teens think that using social media has helped their relationships. Half (52%) of all teen social media users say using such media has mainly helped their relationships with friends, compared to just 4% who say social media use has mainly hurt their relationships.

Similarly, more than a third (37%) says social media use has mainly helped their relationships with family members, compared to 2% who say it has mainly hurt them. In addition, a majority of teens say social media help them keep in touch with friends they cannot see regularly (88%), get to know other students at their school better (69%), and connect with new people who share a common interest (57%). Finally, social networking site that was once thought to be helping people across the world to unite and making new relationship can also damage the relationship and make life miserable.

Imagine one day you find, your spouse updated his marital status to single on Facebook. And people posting comments about your sad break up. How cheap has our relationships in the age of social networking become? A survey by the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) reveals Facebook is the main reason behind one out of five divorces in the US. It also says 80 percent of divorce lawyers use social networking site to gather evidence. Flirty messages, photographs and other personal information that you share on Facebook can be used as proof of infidelity.

Mark Keenan, managing director of Divorce Online says: “The most common reason is people having inappropriate sexual chats with people they were not supposed to” (“Facebook causes one,” 2010). Facebook is fuelling divorce rate because it easily reunites old lovers and acts as a secret platform for dating. A research conducted on 308 Facebook users found majority of participants (74. 6%) are likely to add previous romantic or sexual partner as friends on Facebook. John, M (2009). It also shows time spent on Facebook increasing jealousy related feelings. Some people’s lirting comment on your profile can make your partner feeling aggressive and jealousy. And this starts the beginning of a break up. Dr. Marlene Maheu, author of the book “Infidelity on the Internet and a Psychologist”, says “Cyber Infidelity occurs when a partner in a committed relationship uses the computer or the internet to violate promises concerning sexual exclusiveness (Maheu, 2002)”. Today social networking sites make it easier, with situations whereby your spouse does not feel good to have sex with you but seeks sexual solicitation from a facebook friend.

In fact, there are sites dedicated to facebook cheating; ‘facebookcheating. com’ providing tips on how to catch a cheating spouse in the social networking sites. 2. 2. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE The impact of the social networking site on education is an important issue that has caught both educators’ and practitioners’ attention in recent years. There is a growing body of studies emphasizing that individuals are embedded in their societies.

Thus, the related social structure, though sometimes invisible, is often associated with instrumental outcomes, including power, innovation, learning outcomes, and job performance. Haythornthwaite examined the distance learners’ interactions in class and profiled students’ roles and information exchange among distance learners’ social networks. In a university course, Guldner and Stone-Winestock empirically demonstrated that appropriate arrangement of groups according to each student’s position in a social network might increase the student’s learning satisfaction and academic performance.

Students are paying more attention towards these social networking activities rather than utilizing this time for their studies and this surely affects their academic performance as Thomas (1987) stated that activities of students are associated with grade-related differences among them. Several studies have been done regarding social networking and grades. Whittemore School of Business and Economics recently conducted a survey of over 1,000 students. They asked questions regarding which social network sites were used, how much time they spent on a site, what their grade point average (GPA) was, and what they were going to school for.

It was concluded that there is no correlation between how much time is spent on a social networking site and grades (Martin, 2009). The University of New Hampshire agrees, and believes that current college students grew up in the technology era and social networking is now just a part of a student’s daily routine. Their research show that “63% of heavy users received high grades, compared to 65% of light users” (U of NH, 2009). The University of New Hampshire said that a majority of students use social networking for social connections and entertainment, but are also using it for education and professional reasons.

Northwestern University recently published research stating that social networking sites are not affecting students’ GPAs. In fact, ethnic background, and parental education appears to have more of an influence than the amount of time used on social networking sites. Northwestern researchers believe that “social networking use didn’t affect the difference in GPAs between male and female or white and African American students. However, social network use did eliminate the difference in GPAs between students whose parents had differing levels of higher education” Cheng, J. 2010). When researchers controlled the demographic of parental education, there seemed to be a positive relationship between internet use and GPA. However, there are always two sides to every story. Karpinski focused on the relationship between time spent on Facebook and the academic performance of students (San Miguel, 2009). The overall finding indicated “more time on Facebook equals slightly lower grades” San Miguel, (2009). In Karpinski’s study the average Facebook user had a GPA of 3. 0 to 3. 5, while the non-Facebook user had a GPA of 3. 5-4. 0.

Also, the average Facebook user studied for 1-5 hours per week, while the non-Facebook user would student 11-15 hours per week. Many researchers are aware that Facebook is not the only thing that could possibly be taking away study time. However, 55% of those surveyed “access their pages several times a day or at least once a day for a long period of time” (San Miguel, 2009). Kirschnera revealed that students who multi-task between social networking sites and homework are likely to have 20% lower grades than a student who does not have a social networking site in visual range.

Kirschnera believes that even running a social networking site on the background on a student’s PC while studying or doing homework could lower a student’s grade. He believes that “the problem is that most people have Facebook or other social networking sites, their e-mails and maybe instant messaging constantly running in the background while they are carrying out their tasks” (Enriquez, J. G. 2010). Users of Facebook have an average “GPA of 3. 06, while non-users have an average GAP of 3. 82” (Choney, 2010). Facebook, and other social media websites, are beginning to take up more time due to our society’s increasing reliance on computers.

At the American Educational Research Association 2009 annual conference a presentation stated that United States college students who use social networking sites tend to have lower grades. Again, researchers found the same findings as Karpinski. Students who work tends to use social networking sites less than those students who are more activities based within campus. However, researchers indicated that they could not be certain that Facebook use was the direct link to lower grades because of less studying” but they felt that it was an obvious connection to make (Schneider, 2009).

Englander (2010) proclaimed that internet usage is negatively associated with academic performance of student users and destructive impact of internet usage is far more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction has come forth as a result of striking boost in internet usage over the past few decades. Nalwa. K. , Anand. A. P (2003) proposed that addicted users prefer using internet setting back their personal and professional responsibilities and this ultimately leads to poor academic performance. Kubey, R. W. , Lavin, M. J. , and Barrows, J. R. 2001) proposed that impairment of academic performance and internet dependency are correlated with the use of synchronous communication applications including social networking sites and chat rooms. Similarly, Banquil and Burce (2009) found a continuing drop of grades among student users of social networking sites. Also, Boogart and Robert (2006) declared that use of social networking sites and Facebook detrimental impacts on academic performance of student users. Then, Grabmeier (2009) observed lower GPAs among students who log in any social networking sites.

Internet abuses are increasing at an alarming rate and putting forward a serious need to promote usage regulations among student users. While using social networking sites, issues of privacy, identity protection, and e-professionalism must be paid attention. Students, using internet more, scored higher on reading skills test and had higher grades as well (Linda 2006). Also it has been found that Facebook usage is helpful for cure in case of some psychological problems including low life-satisfaction and low self-esteem (Ellison et al. , 2007).

Social networking sites also provide a rich mean of interaction between teachers and students as stated by Roblyer (2010). Shah (2001) proposed that informational use of internet is positively correlated with civic indicators of social capital such as civic engagement, interpersonal trust, and life contentment. Pasek, J. , Kenski K. , Romer D. , Jamieson K. H. (2006) stated that a site-specific culture can both positive and negatively affect the building of social capital and found that Facebook usage is not positively associated with lower grades of the students rather found Facebook users scoring higher grades.

No association was found between GPAs of student users and Facebook usage in a study conducted by Kolek, E. A and Saunders, D (2008). Social networking sites promote interactivity among students and teachers. In a research Lovitts, B. E and Nelson, C. (2000) found that strong integration of students into their professional and social life is sturdily correlated to the successful completion of their degree. In view of the contrasting findings mentioned above, Current study specifically aims at exploring the relationship between social networking sites usage and educational performance of the student users.

CHAPTER THREE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In this study, two theoretical orientations in sociology shall be employed to explain the impact of social networking sites on the academic performance of students. These sociological approaches are Uses and Gratification Theory, a perspective that places more focus on the consumer or audience instead of the actual message itself and Media Dependency Theory which posits that media influence is determined by the interrelations between the media, its audience, and society.

The study is anchored on both theories. 3. 1Uses and Gratification Theory According to Katz (1959), gratification theory is concerned with what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Sociologists such as Louis Wirth (1897-1952) and Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) have emphasized the importance of mass media as instruments of social control. What mass communication scholars today refer to as the uses and gratifications approach is generally recognized to be a sub-tradition of media effects research (McQuail, 1994).

Early in the history of communications research, an approach was developed to study the gratifications that attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the types of content that satisfy their social and psychological needs (Cantril, 1942). Much early effects research adopted the experimental or quasi-experimental approach, in which communication conditions were manipulated in search of general lessons about how better to communicate, or about the unintended consequences of messages (Klapper, 1960). Assumption of Uses and Gratifications Theory The assumptions of uses and gratifications theory are as follow: . There is not merely one way that people use media but there are many ways and reasons for using it (Blumer, 1979). 2. People have freewill to decide how they will use media and how it will affect them. 3. People using media can choose the influence media has on them as well as the idea that users choose media alternatives merely as a means to an end (Katz, 1959). Uses and gratifications researchers produced multiple responses. Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas (1973) assembled a comprehensive list of social and psychological needs said to be satisfied by exposure to mass media.

Rosengren (1974), attempting to theoretically refine uses and gratifications, suggested that certain basic needs interact with personal characteristics and the social environment of the individual to produce perceived problems and perceived solutions. Those problems and solutions constitute different motives for gratification behavior that can come from using the media or other activities. Together media use or other behaviors produce gratification (or non-gratification) that has an impact on the individual or society, thereby starting the process anew. Application of Uses and Gratifications Theory to this study

Social networking sites are numerous and effective in disseminating information quickly. The rate at which information is moving around the world is very high that in a twinkling of an eye a piece of information can travel from one end of the world to another. Social networking sites available in Nigeria include Facebook, Twitter and Yahoo chat among others. There are many ways and reasons for using these social networking sites. The most common reason for using them by students is to meet and relate with friends both within country and around the world.

In reality, there is no law as to which of the sites people and especially students can visit and when and how they can visit them. In Nigeria both young and old are free to join any of these social networks at will and in essence many young people have been engrossed in using them. The proliferation of Global System Mobile (GSM) in the country has really put the utility of these social networks on the hands of people most especially students. As a result of this, students’ environment is charged with nothing but shouting of pinging and chatting both day and night. Negative effect of social networking sites cannot be underemphasized.

The focus of this study is the effect of these social networking sites among Obafemi Awolowo University students. The effect can be seen mostly on the academic performance of the students and their social life. This can be linked to the number of hours pinging and chatting is taking out of their time. Many students prefer securing phones that can browse to buying textbooks and lecture materials needed for their academics. It has been the habit of many students to be chatting while lectures are on and some even take it into examination hall to perpetrate examination malpractice.

The failure of uses and gratifications theory to underscore the relationship between social network, its audience and society necessitated the use of a complimentary theory. Media Dependency Theory Media dependency theory is a theoretical approach which establishes that media influence is determined by the interrelations among the media, the audience, and society (DeFleurand Ball-Rokeach, 1982). The individual’s desire for information from the media is the primary variable in explaining why media messages have cognitive, affective, or variable effects.

Media dependency is high when an individual’s goal satisfaction relies on information from the media system (Ball-Rokeach, 1985). Rubin and Windahl (1986) augmented the dependency model to include the gratifications sought by the audiences an interactive component with media dependency. For Rubin and Windahl, the combination of gratifications sought and socially determined dependency produced media effects. They argued that dependency on a medium or a message results when individuals either intentionally seek out information or ritualistically use specific communication media channels or messages.

For example, McIlwraith (1998) found that self-labeled “TV addicts” often used television to distract themselves from unpleasant thoughts, to regulate moods, and to fill time. Application of Media dependency Theory to this study The failure of uses and gratifications theory to consider the relationship among the social network, the users and the society necessitates the use of media dependency theory. The characteristics of the users will determine the level and volume of interaction between the users and the social network.

The type of information sought will also have effect on the dependency of the users on the network. Population under study is students who are mostly unmarried youths. The large population of interest has increased the intensity of use of social network among the students. The satisfaction derived from using the social network has turned thousands of students “social network addicts. ” Society at large seems not to be helping the trend. Family and parents’ contribution is overwhelming in the sense that they are the ones procuring the handsets to their wards.

Government, schools and religious organizations are yet to have influence over how people, especially students, are using these social networking sites. Conceptual framework Variables are set out in this part. These variables include independent variable, dependent variable(s) and intervening variable(s). Independent variable is the variable that is systematically manipulated so that the effect on the dependent variable can be observed. Dependent variable is the outcome variable which is hypothesized to vary under an influence. Figure 3. : Conceptual framework of the effect of social networking sites on the academic performance. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Intervening Variables | | |Good academic performance | It is my assumption that students who use social networking sites get addicted to it, they use the sites during classes and experience reduction in their study time. These would lead to poor academic performance. However, a reduction in time spent on social networking sites would result in good academic performance. Hypotheses

Based on the assumptions, the following hypotheses can be derived; Hypothesis 1; there is no relationship between social networking sites and student’s academic performance. Hypothesis 2; there is no relationship between the sex of a students and preference of social networking sites. CHAPTER FOUR METHODOLOGY The aim of this section is to present in detail the method that was used in carrying out this study. It deals with the process taken in carrying out the study under investigation. Quantitative technique was and involving the administration of questionnaire.

This chapter thus discusses research design, the area of the study or population of interest, sample size and sampling procedures, data collection method, validation of research instrument and testing, and method of data analysis. 4. 1 RESEARCH DESIGN This study is a survey design research as it gears towards understanding the effect of social networking sites on academic performance. However, for the purpose of this study, cross-sectional design was used since the idea was to measure some variables at a single time and besides, most surveys are cross-sectional. . 2AREA OF THE STUDY AND POPULATION OF INTEREST This study was conducted among students of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife. Ile-Ife is a town in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria. Osun State was carved out of Oyo Sate on August 27, 1991 during the regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Osogbo. Osun State is landlocked and occupies 9251 kilometers. The university was founded in 1962. the university was formerly called university of Ife and was later changed to Obafemi Awolowo University in 1987 following the death of one of its co-founder.

The university is situated on a large expanse of land totaling 11,861 hectares in Ile-Ife. The university has many structures and human resources. The university comprises of over 25,000 students, central campus, residential area for students, staff quarters, teaching and non-teaching staff as well as teaching hospital and a research farm. 3. SAMPLING SIZE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE The population of interest for this study is Obafemi Awolowo University students. The sampling method that will be used for this study is accidental sampling which falls under non-probability sampling.

Therefore, people will be selected based on their availability. Overall, the sample of hundred people will be investigated with the instrument, questionnaire. From the sample selected, the data as regards the previously stated objectives will be collected from the selected respondents and the data will be used to prove the hypothesis right or wrong. 4. 4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The research methodology used for this study was quantitative research methodology and it commanded the use of questionnaire as an instrument for collecting data in this study.

This questionnaire was self administered to the respondents in other to gather data relevant to the issues under discussion. However, for good understanding of the impact of social networking sites on student’s academic performance, primary data was used because data from the source is preferably to data that has been collected previously in which little is known whether it is correct or not and based on the fact that change is constant as things can change at anytime and it will be bad to rely on false information.

Therefore, the primary source of data was used for this study as it provided basic reliable and concrete information from the respondents. Primary data refers to data obtained from the originator of the data (Fagboungbe 1993). The questionnaire was the major source of my data collection. For the purpose of this study, interview cannot be used because not many students have much time to spend with the interviewer because of other activities they may want to attend to and for this reason, interview method would be time consuming because moving from ne person to another with interview guide with a view of collecting data from them would be difficult. Hence, the questionnaire in this case was divided into four sections: Section A solicited for information on the socio-economic data of the students, Section B was concerned with the questions on the impacts of socio-networking sites on student’s social life. Section C inquired more information on the effects of social networking sites on student’s academic performance. Finally, section D asked information on the commonly used social networking site and the reason for the preference. 4. VALIDATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The instrument was validated using face validity. The questions asked in this questionnaire totally reflected what was needed to understand the view of respondents on the impact of social networking sites on student’s academic performance. In short, the questions asked in this questionnaire are germane to the issue of social networking sites and student’s academic performance. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS The data was collected from the participants and was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for windows.

The responses of the participants were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. The analysis of the data was done in stages. Firstly, the data was pre-coded for easy entry of the data into spreadsheet. Secondly, the coded data was carefully entered into a spreadsheet and therefore, proper verification of the data entered into the spreadsheet was made. Thirdly, the analysis of the data was done and tables showing the frequencies and percentages of the results of analysis were derived.

The fourth and last stage showed the interpretation of the results of the analysis. Lastly, the basis of decision is making inferences on result of analysis of the responses that were given by the respondents and consequently, the result of analysis of the responses supplied by the respondents was compared with the literature review and the theories used. After these, decisions were drawn from the students’ responses. CHAPTER FIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Frequency distribution of respondents by socio demographic characteristics

The table shows the distribution of respondents by their socio demographic characteristics: the distribution by sex shows that 68% of the respondents were males while 32% of them were female. As regards the age of the respondents 26% of the respondents were in the age range 15-20, 55% were in the age group 21-25, 17% of them were in the age group 26-30 while 2% were in the age group 30 and above. Also, the religious affiliation also shows that 79% were of the Christian faith while 21% of the respondents were Muslims.

More so, the distribution by ethnicity also shows that 70% were Yoruba, 8% of them were Hausa, and 16% were Igbo while the remaining 6% were from other tribes. The distribution by marital status also shows that 87% of them were singles while 13% of the respondents were also married. |Socio demographic characteristic |Frequency |% | |Sex: | | | |Male |68 |68. 0 | |Female |32 |32. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |Age: | | | |15-20 |26 |26. 0 | |21-25 |55 |55. 00 | |26-30 |17 |17. 00 | |30 and above |2 |2. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Religious affiliation: | | | |Christianity |79 |79. 00 | |Islam |21 |21. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Ethnicity: | | | |Yoruba |70 |70. 00 | |Hausa |8 |8. 00 | |Igbo |16 |16. 00 | |Others |6 |6. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |Marital status: | | | |Single |87 |87. 00 | |Married |13 |13. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 Frequency distribution of respondents by the social networking sites and social life. The table shows the illustration of respondents by their social networking sites and social life: as regards using my social networking site has helped connect me with new people who share a common interest, hobby or active of mine shows that 83% strongly agree,12% strongly disagree while 5% said there is no comment.

Also, regarding using my social networking site often distract me when I should be paying attention to the people I’m with showed that 37% of them strongly agree, 46% strongly disagree while 17% had no comment. More so, the distribution by using my social networking site has helped me stay in touch with friends I can’t see on a regular basis indicated that 90% strongly agree, 9% strongly disagree while 1% had no comment. Social networking sites and social life |Frequency |% | |Using my social networking site has helped me stay in touch with | | | |friends I can’t see on a regular basis: | | | |Strongly agree | | | |Strongly disagree |90 |90. 0 | |No comment |9 |9. 00 | |Total |1 |1. 00 | | |100 |100. 0 | |Using my social networking site has helped connect me with new people| | | |who share a common interest, hobby, or activity of mine: | | | |Strongly agree | | | |Strongly disagree |83 |83. 00 | |No comment |12 |12. 0 | |Total |5 |5. 00 | | |100 |100. 00 | |Using my social networking site often distract me when I should be | | | |paying attention to the people I’m with: | | | |Strongly agree |37 |37. 0 | |Strongly disagree |46 |46. 00 | |No comment |17 |17. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Using my social networking site has helped me be more aware of | | | |current events: | | | |Strongly agree |90 |90. 00 | |Strongly disagree |8 |8. 00 | |No comment |2 |2. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 Frequency distribution of respondents by social networking sites and academic performance The table shows the distribution of respondents by social networking sites and academic performance; those who said they currently have a profile on a social networking site 95% of them has while 5% does not have. Also, with those who often visit the site 76% of them visit there very often, 9% rarely visits there while 15% visits the site sometimes.

Regarding those who visit the site to text or message people while in class 73% of the respondents sometimes use the site while 43% said no. regarding changes in your grade in class 35% said they noticed it while 65% said they did not notice any change in their grade. |Social networking sites and academic performance |Frequency |% | |Do you currently have a profile on a social networking site such as | | | |Facebook, Myspace, or some other site? | | |Yes | | | |No |95 |95. 00 | |Total |5 |5. 00 | | |100 |100. 00 | |How often do you visit this site? | | |Very often |76 |76. 00 | |Rarely |9 |9. 00 | |Sometimes |15 |15. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Do you sometimes use this site to text or messaging people while in | | | |class? | | | |Yes |57 |57. 00 | |No |43 |43. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Have you noticed any change in your grade in class? | | | |Yes | | | |No |35 |35. 00 | |Total |65 |65. 00 | | |100 |100. 0 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 Frequency distribution of respondents by commonly used social networking site The table shows the distribution of respondents by commonly used social networking site; those who said they were using the social networking 54% shows that they were using Facebook, 3% of them were using 2go, 27% of them were using Twitter, 4% were using Myspace while 12% of them were using other social networking sites. With those who said they cannot do in a day without visiting the site shows that 61% said yes while 39% said no. ith the main way you check your social networking site 61% shows that from my cell phone or other mobile device, 17% were checking from a laptop or desktop computer while 22% were using both equally. |Commonly used social networking site |Frequency |% | |Which social networking do you mainly use? | | | |Facebook |54 |54. 0 | |2go |3 |3. 00 | |Twitter |27 |27. 00 | |Myspace |4 |4. 00 | |Others |12 |12. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |Can you do in a day without visiting this site? | | | |Yes |61 |61. 00 | |No |39 |39. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |What is the main way you check your social networking site? | | | |From my cell phone or other mobile device | | | |From a laptop or desktop computer |61 |61. 0 | |Both equally |17 |17. 00 | |Total |22 |22. 00 | | |100 |100. 00 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 5. 5Test of hypotheses 1. There is no relationship between the sex of student and preference of social networking sites. 2.

There is no relationship between social networking sites and student’s academic performance. Hypothesis 1 Ho: there exist no relationships between the sex of students and preference of social networking sites H1: there exists a relationship between the sex of students and preference of social networking sites. | |Value |Degree of freedom |p-value | |Pearson chi-square |0. 4417 |2 |0. 802 | Critical region: reject Ho if p-value

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