AIR TRANSPORTATION Early History of Flight: Around 400 BC – Flight in China • The discovery of the kite that could fly in the air by the Chinese started humans thinking about flying. • Kites have been important to the invention of flight as they were the forerunner to balloons and gliders. Hero and the Aeolipile • The ancient Greek engineer, Hero of Alexandria, worked with air pressure and steam to create sources of power. One experiment that he developed was the aeolipile which used jets of steam to create rotary motion. 1485 The Ornithopter and the Study of Flight • Leonardo da Vinci made the first real studies of flight in the 1480’s.
He had over 100 drawings that illustrated his theories on bird and mechanical flight. The drawings illustrated the wings and tails of birds, ideas for man carrying machines, and devices for the testing of wings. 1783-The Flight of the First Hot Air Balloon • The brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, were inventors of the first hot air balloon. • They used the smoke from a fire to blow hot air into a silk bag. The silk bag was attached to a basket. The hot air then rose and allowed the balloon to be lighter-than-air. • In 1783, the first passengers in the colorful balloon were a sheep, rooster and duck.
It climbed to a height of about 6,000 feet and traveled more than one mile. • The first manned flight was on November 21, 1783, the passengers were Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois Laurent. 1799-1850’s-Gliders • Sir George Cayley is considered the “FATHER OF AERODYNAMICS”.. • Cayley experimented with wing design, distinguished between lift and drag, and formulated the concepts of vertical tail surfaces, steering rudders, rear elevators, and air screws. • Cayley designed many different versions of gliders that used the movements of the body to control.
A young boy, whose name is not known, was the first to fly one of Cayley’s gliders, the first glider capable of carrying a human. 1891 Otto Lilienthal • German engineer, Otto Lilienthal, studied aerodynamics and worked to design a glider that would fly. Otto Lilienthal was the first person to design a glider that could fly a person and was able to fly long distances. 1891 Aerodrome • Samuel Langley was physicist and astronomer who realized that power was needed to help man fly. • He built a model of a plane, which he called an aerodrome that included a steam-powered engine.
In 1891, his model flew for 3/4s of a mile before running out of fuel. • It was too heavy to fly and it crashed. He was very disappointed. He gave up trying to fly. His major contributions to flight involved attempts at adding a power plant to a glider 1894 Octave Chanute • Octave Chanute was a successful engineer who undertook the invention of airplanes as a hobby, after being inspired by Otto Lilienthal. • Chanute designed several aircraft, the Herring – Chanute biplane was his most successful design and formed the basis of the Wright biplane design. MAN’S FIRST SUCCESFUL FLIGHT: 903- The Wright Brothers • Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright was very deliberate in their quest for flight. • The Wright Brothers designed and used a wind tunnel to test the shapes of the wings and the tails of the gliders. After they found a glider shape that consistently would fly in the tests in the North Carolina Outer Banks dunes, then they turned their attention to how to create a propulsion system that would create the lift needed to fly. • The “Flyer” lifted from level ground to the north of Big Kill Devil Hill, at 10:35 a. m. , on December 17, 1903.
Orville piloted the plane which weighed six hundred and five pounds. • The first heavier-than-air flight traveled 120 ft. in 12 seconds. The two brothers took turns during the test flights. It was Orville’s turn to test the plane, so he is the brother that is credited with the first flight. • In 1904, the first flight lasting more than five minutes took place on November 9. The Flyer II was flown by Wilbur Wright. • In 1908, passenger flight took a turn for the worse when the first fatal air crash occurred on September 17. • Orville Wright was piloting the plane.
Orville Wright survived the crash, but his passenger, Signal Corps Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, did not. The Wright Brothers had been allowing passengers to fly with them since May 14, 1908. TYPES OF AIRPLANE ENGINES TURBOJET ENGINE • The basic idea of the turbojet engine is simple. Air taken in from an opening in the front of the engine is compressed to 3 to 12 times its original pressure in compressor. • The turbojet engine is a reaction engine. In a reaction engine, expanding gases push hard against the front of the engine TURBOPROP ENGINE (Turbo propeller Engine) A turboprop engine is a jet engine attached to a propeller. The turbine at the back is turned by the hot gases, and this turns a shaft that drives the propeller. • Some small airliners and transport aircraft are powered by turboprops. • Engines featuring such propellers are called prop fans. • Hungarian, Gyorgy Jendrassik who worked for the Ganz wagon works in Budapest designed the very first working turboprop engine in 1938. Called the Cs-1, Jendrassik’s engine was first tested in August of 1940; the Cs-1 was abandoned in 1941 without going into production due to the War. Max Mueller designed the first turboprop engine that went into production in 1942. TURBOFAN RNGINE • A turbofan engine has a large fan at the front, which sucks in air. • Most of today’s airliners are powered by turbofans. In a turbojet all the air entering the intake passes through the gas generator, which is composed of the compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine. TURBO SHAFT ENGINE • It does not drive a propeller. Instead, it provides power for a helicopter rotor. • The turbo shaft engine is designed so that the speed of the helicopter rotor is independent of the rotating speed of the gas generator.
RAMJET ENGINE • The speed of the jet “rams” or forces air into the engine. It is essentially a turbojet in which rotating machinery has been omitted. • A ramjet vehicle requires some form of assisted takeoff, such as another aircraft. It has been used primarily in guided-missile systems. Space vehicles use this type of jet. PARTS OF AN AIRPLANE AND THEIR FUNCTIONS 1. Fuselage- The body of the plane. It is generally a long tube shape 2. Landing gear- The wheels of a plane. ? – There are two main wheels on either side of the plane fuselage.
Then there is one more wheel near the front of the plane. The brakes for the wheels are like the brakes for cars. They are operated by pedals, one for each wheel. Most landing gear can be folded into the fuselage during the flight and opened for landing. 3. Wings- The wings are shaped with smooth surfaces. There is a curve to the wings which helps push the air over the top more quickly than it goes under the wing. ? – The shape of the wings determines how fast and high the plane can fly. ? – Wings are called airfoils. 4.
Flaps- slide back and down to increase the surface of the wing area. -They also tilt down to increase the curve of the wing. 5. Slats- move out from the front of the wings to make the wing space larger. This helps to increase the lifting force of the wing at slower speeds like takeoff and landing. 6. Ailerons- are hinged on the wings and move downward to push the air down and make the wing tilt up. This moves the plane to the side and helps it turn during flight. 7. Spoilers- after landing, the spoilers are used like air brakes to reduce any remaining lift and slow down the airplane.
REGIMES OF FLIGHT • Ranges of speed defined relative to the local speed of sound. 1. SUBSONIC • this category contains most of the commercial jets that are used today to move passengers and cargo. • the speed is just below the speed of sound as 350-750 miles per hour. • engines today are lighter and more powerful and can travel quickly with large loads of people and goods. 2. SUPERSONIC • 760 MPH is the speed of sound. • These planes can fly up to 5 times the speed of sound. Planes in this regime have specially designed high performance engines. They are also designed in lightweight materials to provide less drag. • The first powered aircraft to explore this regime was the Bell X-1A, in 1947. • The wings of supersonic fighters are swept in planform to reduce drag. • President Kennedy- in 1963 he proposed the supersonic plane as a national priority. • UNITED STATES- gave up its first attempts to produce a supersonic transport (SST) for commercial used after spending 1 billion dollars in development. • TU-144- supersonic version of Russian but it has been plagued with economic and safety problems. • CONCORDE- British/French version of SST has a cruising speed of 1,458 miles per hour at an altitude of 50,000-60,000 feet, which takes it out of the more heavily traveled subsonic jets levels of 30,000-40,000 feet. -it needs speeds of200-215 knots to take off, as compared with 165 knots for subsonic. Supersonic Transport problems: • it seats only 105 passengers. • fuel consumption is 2-3 times that of a subsonic. • The range is less that 4,000 miles. Advantages of Concorde: • 80% are business travelers • cabin is pressurized to 5,000 feet instead of to about 7,000 feet as in subsonic jets. • air conditioning balances the humidity, which makes colds. Even though the SST has proved economically unfeasible mostly because of its small pay load. ? Air travel changes will probably call for an improved version, one of that can carry at least 250 passengers and have a 7500 mile range. ? That kind of plane would be a boon for pacific basin travel, where current flight times are nine to thirteen hours. 3. HYPERSONIC • 3500-7000 MPH speed of sound. • Rockets travel at speeds 5 to 10 times the speed of sound as they go into orbit. • In the 1970s, the term generally came to refer to speeds of Mach 5 (5 times the speed of sound) and above.
The hypersonic regime is a subset of the supersonic regime. • Large variations in air density and pressure occur because of shock waves, and expansions 4. TRANSONIC • Transonic is an aeronautics term referring to a range of velocities just below and above the speed of sound (about mach 0. 8–1. 2). It is defined as the range of speeds between the critical Mach number. • Most modern jet powered aircraft spend a considerable amount of time in the transonic state. This is particularly important due to an effect known as wave drag, which is prevalent in these speed ranges. Severe instability can occur at transonic speeds. Shock waves move through the air at the speed of sound. THE NEWEST PLANES • Boeing 747-400- the newest of the long range jets. ? >can carry 410 passengers and has a range 0f 8,800 miles • MD-11 -McDonnell Douglas newest jets. ? > MD-11 can carry 405 passengers. ? -Both planes are being built to test the traveler’s capacity to sit in one seat for a marathon 16plus hours, extending over 7,000 to 8,000 miles. 1987- Europe and its Airbus Industry had put about 15 billion on the line to produce a: JUNIOR JUMBO -the airbus A-340, -a 275-seater with a range about 8,000 miles? -greater flight frequencies because of faster loading and deplaning of passengers. Aircraft Footprint- is the distance from the takeoff point to the point at which the plane is no longer significantly audible. N. V Fokker- a smaller aircraft contender. ?-are fuel-efficient and require small cockpit crews. FREEDOMS OF THE AIR First Freedom of the Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State or States to fly across its territory without landing (also known as a First Freedom Right).
Second Freedom of the Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State or States to land in its territory for non-traffic purposes (also known as a Second Freedom Right). Third Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to put down, in the territory of the first State, traffic coming from the home State of the carrier (also known as a Third Freedom Right).
Fourth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to take on, in the territory of the first State, traffic destined for the home State of the carrier (also known as a Fourth Freedom Right). Fifth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to put down and to take on, in the territory of the first State, traffic coming from or destined to a third State (also known as a Fifth Freedom Right).
ICAO characterizes all “freedoms” beyond the Fifth as “so-called” because only the first five “freedoms” have been officially recognized as such by international treaty. Sixth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, of transporting, via the home State of the carrier, traffic moving between two other States (also known as a Sixth Freedom Right). The so-called Sixth Freedom of the Air, unlike the first five freedoms, is not incorporated as such into any widely recognized air service agreements such as the “Five Freedoms Agreement”.
Seventh Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State, of transporting traffic between the territory of the granting State and any third State with no requirement to include on such operation any point in the territory of the recipient State, i. e the service need not connect to or be an extension of any service to/from the home State of the carrier.
Eighth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, of transporting cabotage traffic between two points in the territory of the granting State on a service which originates or terminates in the home country of the foreign carrier or (in connection with the so-called Seventh Freedom of the Air) outside the territory of the granting State (also known as a Eighth Freedom Right or “consecutive cabotage”).
Ninth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege of transporting cabotage traffic of the granting State on a service performed entirely within the territory of the granting State (also known as a Ninth Freedom Right or “stand alone” cabotage). GOVERNMENT AGENCIES • INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA) o Is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. o IATA was formed IATA was formed in April 1945, in Havana, Cuba. It is the successor to the International Air Traffic Association, founded in The Hague in 1919, the year of the world’s first international scheduled services.
Functions: ? To the member airlines- it provides solutions to problems beyond the resources of any single airline. ? To the government- it is the medium of negotiation for international fares and agreements. ? To the traveling public- it ensures the traveling public safe and efficient operations of all the airlines, proper business practice by the airlines and travel agents. ? Clears financial balance between airlines and charges between tickets. ? Caters ground holding ? Performs maintenance service ? Handles aircraft leasing projects ? Promotes worldwide air travel safety Regulate the shipping of dangerous goods INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) ? An agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Canada. Functions: ? Adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation. ? Prevention of unlawful interference ? Facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. Defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, commonly known as the Chicago Convention CIVIL AERONAUTICS BOARD (CAB) ? Agency charged with the power to regulate the economic aspect of air transportation in the Philippines. Functions: ? Licensing of domestic and international airlines. ? Regulation of fares and rates for the carriage of person s and property. ? Enforcement of the economic provision of R. A. 776. ? Authorization of navigation of foreign aircraft in the Philippines. Participation in the negotiation of air agreements covering exchange of air rights. ? Suggest corrective to improve safety in air commerce. ? Assure protection of the public by requiring the performance of safe and adequate air service, eliminating rate discrimination, unfair competition and deceptive practices in air transportation. Air Transportation Office (ATO) ? The Philippines’ Air Transportation Office (Filipino: Tanggapan ng Transportasyong Himpapawid), abbreviated as ATO, is responsible for implementing policies on civil aviation to assure safe, economic and efficient air travel.
FUNCTIONS: ? Establish and prescribe rules and regulations for the inspection and registration of all aircraft owned and operated in the Philippines and all air facilities; ? Establish and prescribe the corresponding rules and regulations for the enforcement of ? Determine, fix and/or prescribe charges and/or rates pertinent to the operation of public air utility facilities and services; ? Administer and operate the Civil Aviation Training Center (CATC); ? Operate and maintain national airports, air navigation and other similar facilities in compliance to ICAO; ?
Perform such other powers and functions as may be prescribed by law. PHILIPPINE AEROSPACE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (PADC) ? The corporation undertakes business and development activities for the establishment of reliable aviation and aerospace industry. ? It engages in design, manufacture and scale of all forms of aircrafts. ? It develops local capabilities in maintenance, repair and modification of equipment related to air flight. ? It operates on air transport service for domestic and international flights. ? Head: Reynato R. Jose FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) It concentrates on passenger safety, aircraft certification to meet safety standards, pilot licensing and air traffic control. ? Also responsible for investigation of aircraft accident. ? 1958- FAA became independent MANILA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY (MIAA) ? This government agency is in charge of operating and maintaining airport facilities in the Mactan International Airport. ? As with MIAA, MCIAA is responsible for keeping Mactan airport in tip-toe shape to ensure its competitiveness as a trade and tourist gateway to Visayas Island group. It implements airport rules, provides airport safety and security needs. ? Under operations are international and domestic operations and maintenance, fire fighting and rescue and electrical and mechanical services. ? Head: Gen. Mgr. Alfonso U. Alerre INTERNATIONAL AIR CHARTER ASSOCIATION (IACA) ? Trade association of supplemental and charter airlines. NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) ? The role of NASA is aeronautical research. ? They achieve world leadership in space technology and exploration. LOCAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM LIST OF AIRLINES IN THE PHILIPPINES
PHILIPPINE AIRLINES ? It is the national airline of the Philippines. ? The first airline in Asia and the oldest of those currently in operation. ? Makati City: headquarters ? Flies both domestic and international ? Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Paranaque City: main hub. ? China Airlines and Japan Airlines: principal Asian competitors. ? IATA: PR HISTORY: ? February 1941: established ? Started by a group of businessmen led by Andres Soriano. ? March 1941: started its operation with a single Beech Model 18 aircraft making one flight daily between Manila (from Nielson Field) and Baguio. In July 1941, a chartered DC-4 ferried carried 40 American servicemen to California, making Pal the first airline to cross the Pacific. ? December 1941, started regular service between Manila and San Francisco.? INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS: ? Pal has 21 crash records ? Last one being in 1999 and most of them being in its earlier years. ? Philippine Airlines Flight 812 was a scheduled passenger flight from Francisco Bangoy International Airport in Davao City to Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila.
On May 25, 2000, an Airbus A330-301 operating on the route was hijacked by a man later identified as Reginald Chua, just before the airplane was about to land. The flight carried 278 passengers and 13 crew members. AIR PHILIPPINES ? It is an airline registered in the Philippines. ? Primarily focuses on the domestic low-cost market. ? IATA: 2P ? ICAO: GAP ? Call sign: Orient Pacific History: ? February 13, 1995: was incorporated. ? Subic: base operations. ? February 1, 1996: started its flight operations with a Boeing737-200 between Subic, Iloilo and Zamboanga.
ASIAN SPIRIT ? An airline based in the Philippines that usually flies routes not serviced by major airlines such as Philippine Airlines. ? The Philippines’ youngest airline. ? Based in Manila. ? Founded in 1996 by the Airline Employees Cooperative. ? IATA: 6K ? ICAO: RIT ? Call sign: Asian Spirit CEBU PACIFIC ? One of the newest airline companies operating in the Philippines. ? The country’s 2nd largest airline after Philippine Airlines ? Cebu: headquarters ? March 8, 1996: first flight ? Started with 24 flights daily among Manila, Cebu and Davao. By 2000’s, was able to operate international flights to the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea and the dependency of Guam. ? IATA: 5J ? ICAO: CEB ? Call sign: Cebu Air PACIFIC EAST ASIA CARGO LINES ? Is a cargo airline based in the Philippines ? IATA: Q8 ? ICAO: PEC PACIFICAIR ? Pacificair ( Pacific Airways Corporation ) is an airline based in Manila, Philippines. ? Established: 1947 ? Operates scheduled passenger flights, air taxi services, and is involved in agricultural work. ? IATA: GX ? ICAO: PFR ? Call sign: Pacific West